Homeless is a significant problem that contemporary society has not eliminated and history implies that sometimes of economic difficulty the problem of homelessness becomes worse. Across Europe more people have become homeless and are excluded from contemporary society. Research shows that society's conception of homeless people can affect how much help they obtain. This research undertook to research attitudes among a Nottingham Trent International College or university students'. A study was conducted using a questionnaire data collection method to be able to answer the research goals of this project. A complete of 25 students were invited to take part in the research. The main element objectives of the study were to determine NTIC university student attitudes towards homeless and know how important homelessness was recognized to be and what steps if any were recognized. The results of questionnaire proved that students experienced a good attitude of homeless people. The perception was that homeless were responsible for their situation but that there have been other factors. There is not significant support for actions to aid the homeless and it was considered to less important other issues including education, criminal offenses and health.
Homeless is a challenge about the world and what people think about homeless people make a difference the support and help they may get from population and government. Around the world governments are reducing on services and one of the areas that is influenced is the service to aid the homeless. In the UK there is much debate about the reduced spending on general public services and money for homeless services is one area will be influenced. It is significant to consider how far public attitude can affect the support given to homeless people. In America homeless services are being cut-back because this is an area which the government does not have to fret about the public's judgment (Abramsky 2010). This is because the public aren't worried about homelessness and in reality actually see it as an annoyance or a waste material of money.
Homelessness is a serious problem for many people who experiencing health issues both physical and mental. Record has exhibiting that in economic bad times homelessness became very bad such as in the Victorian period and in the 1980s (Abramsky 2010). In today's poor monetary situation with the government cutting back on public spending in all areas it's important to improve the question will support for homeless people become less. How much support they acquire will be based upon how strong attitudes are for the homeless.
Therefore this research will check out the current attitude of students at NTIC to provide sign of wider conception of the UK Public frame of mind on the problem. The results from the review will provide an indication of whether public feel that homeless is a serious concern that support strong action by federal and society. Additionally it will reveal whether student understand the action in Nottingham is too little or too much and whether attitude will encourage action or allow homeless to be worse.
How do you consider people become homeless?
Where do you consider homeless get food and money?
How can homeless people be helped?
Do you think homeless people are in charge of their situation?
Do you think homelessness is a significant problem in the UK?
Do you think homelessness should be a priority for the federal government?
What steps to help homeless people do you support?
Numerous studies have centered on the behaviour of different groupings toward the homeless. Several studies have focused on the attitudes of medical students and nurses. Kee Minick and Connor (1999) discovered that overall the behaviour of nurses to the homeless weren't negative. Nurses' perceptions were that homelessness was scheduled to a lack of careers. Kee, Minick and Connor (1999) suggest this as a likely reason their view was positive. Furthermore, the study proved that Nurses unlike the general public, believed that mental disorder was important cause for homelessness.
Nurse students also identified that the homeless weren't always in a position to get access to the medical support they needed (Hunter et al. 1991 cited in Cruz, Brehm & Harris 2004). One negative belief that group do have was that the homeless, that suffered from drink or medication problems, didn't need just as much care other folks.
In some instances nurses' views were not different from other people. An earlier study showed that everyone had similar views as nurses about the reason for homeless. Lee, Jones and Lewis (1990) found out that the general public in America acquired the frame of mind that homelessness was the result of environmental factors such as poor job opportunities or education facilities. Personal factors such as determination, ability and effort were seen as less significant. Nevertheless Lee, Jones and Lewis (1990) point to facts by an Associated Press review in 1989, that a large percentage 42% of the public consider the average person is at fault for their situation.
Other studies discovered that behaviour could actually change using conditions. Mason and Lester (2003) unveiled that medical students were more than likely to build up negatives views of the homeless throughout their amount of study.
In contrast, the study by Cruz, Brehm and Harris (2004) assessed attitudes of main care and attention residents over an interval and discovered that understanding towards homelessness could be inspired in a positive way by educating individuals about the homeless.
Meanwhile some research exhibited that positive views could be dependant on the student's record. Perry (2003) analyzed students' attitudes with regards to their views on working with homeless people. Their research demonstrated an interest or determination to work with homeless people was shown by more mature students that experienced connection with long-term relations. In addition students that possessed more liberal political views had a far more positive attitude and aspiration of dealing with homeless people in comparison to those with more conservative political views. A report by Tor and McDonnell (1992) unveiled similar results. For example young people and women may have a sympathetic attitude toward the homeless, while in contrast white people or people who have conservative political views would place the blame on the homeless person (Tor and McDonnell 1992).
The literature on the attitudes to the homeless also includes the views of everyone. Toro et al. (2007) found that society acquired a less sympathetic attitude of homeless people in English-speaking nations where there is not unequal get spread around of wealth. Such countries possessed less helpful and supportive methods to reduce homelessness. Homelessness was not seen as the fault of the individual (Lee, Jones and Lewis (1990).
A generally positive attitude by Americans was also found out in national research by Tompsett et al. (2006). The wider open public held less stereotypical views of homeless than in the past plus they approved of steps to help the homeless, that they did not look at a serious issue. Overall the People in the usa were found to have a more compassionate frame of mind and they recognised that the cause of homelessness related to more personal and social issues that weren't connected with exterior factors like the overall economy Tompsett et al. (2006).
According to Kee, Minick and Connor (1999) a knowledge of the public and particular categories perceptions of the homeless is significant to design educational and information initiatives that can influence the way the homeless are recognized. Such views regarding to Lee, Jones and Lewis (1990) can have a sizable influence on the introduction of government coverage on the homeless.
In existing research analyzed there was little study on the attitudes of mainstream students categories which look at to play jobs as managers in industry or insurance policy makers in public areas organisations. Therefore this review provides a basis for evaluating attitudes of mainstream students in the UK.
In regards to methodology implemented by such studies, the questionnaire method is trusted. Mason and Lester (2003) used a questionnaire methodology which was based on Likert level of 1-5 for twenty questions to market research students' attitudes. Their review was based on questionnaire designed and validated with the key purpose of calculating students' behaviour to homeless people.
This research integrated a questionnaire data collection method to be able to answer the research goals of this project. A total of 30 students were invited to take part in the research.
Male and female students were determined at using convenience sampling method from the central refreshment area of the Nottingham Trent International College. This selection method became the easiest, quickest and less expensive way to access students that were ready and open to participate in the study.
The research design was centered on students' behaviour on the homeless and is designed to identify students' perceptions of the homeless and whether they are in favour further action to aid homeless people.
A short questionnaire was made with 12 questions (see Appendix 1) to fully capture students' response to lots of statements using a Likert scale. Because of the time restriction for this study sealed questions were chosen because these were easier and quicker to complete and analyse. Student simply selected from 5 options that matched up their view ranging from 'Strongly Agree' to 'Strongly Disagree'. This is advantage since it would be easier to collect views from students coming from abroad.
The questionnaire grouped the questions into subject areas to make it much easier to follow and understand. All questions were linked with the research aims and aims. The three questions accumulated private information such as era, gender and nationality. Six questions were included to concentrate on students' perception of homeless people and provide sign of sympathy. These questions reviewed whether students' looked at homeless people as rude, extreme, victims and accountable for their actions. One question handled the perceived factors behind homelessness while questions four questions were included to handle research objectives worried about students' behaviour on the seriousness of homelessness, federal action and types of action that needs to be implemented.
The validity of the questionnaire was important factor to take into account. Content validity was assessed by referring to the books review and making questions in the questionnaire was linked to subject areas and ideas for the prevailing studies. Also a technique known as face validation was used, which means that common sense was used to judge that the questions and wordings in the questionnaire made sense for this subject. Furthermore, the ideas for the phrases and the wording for the questionnaire were predicated on ideas and claims found in existing studies.
The first draft of the questionnaire was analyzed with two student colleagues to recognize and perfect any errors and enhance the design. In this particular first draft several problems and flaws were found. First of all, in some questions there faults in the choice which create misunderstanding and delay. Second of all, there were British grammar mistake therefore the question was not clear. We were holding corrected and the questionnaire was analyzed a second time. There is comment that there is not helpful instruction at the beginning of the questionnaire and the questions were too close together that it was triggering confusion. The second version got clear instructions and much more spacing ensure high potential for completion.
Students were contacted outside the key access of the college or university and asked to participate in the research. The purpose of the research was described and students were educated that all data collected would be private and confidential. In the beginning the aim was to gather email addresses and email the questionnaires for students to complete and give back. However from ten students none replied within 24hrs. A new approach was taken when students were asked for 5 mins of their time to complete the questionnaire immediately. A total of 34 questionnaires were gathered over three times. Four of the questionnaires were only partially completed and weren't contained in the analysis.
One significant problem was that international students had more difficult understanding all questions. It had been not possible to know if they really known the question and clarified according to their view or not. Furthermore, it appear that some students were ticking the answers extremely fast indicating that possibly these were not thinking totally about the question. Due to the same scale for each question this made it easier for the kids not to focus and follow routine of ticking.
Findings and Discussion
This findings from this study in a small degree provides an knowledge of the behaviour of students that is not covered in existing research. Thirty questionnaires were successfully completed and returned. The student breakdown was 17 men and 13 feminine of the following nationalities: 3 Nigerian, 2 Pakistani, 7 Chinese language and 18 other nationalities including Arabs.
The research goal of determining how sympathetic students were of homeless people are included in statements in Shape1. Students frame of mind to homeless people on the whole was found to more positive than negative. As mentioned by Amount 1. 50% of the respondents either firmly agreed or agreed with the declaration that homeless individuals were accountable for their situation. These finding can be associated with facts from Lee, Jones and Lewis (1990) that show a big ratio (42%) of the public consider the average person is at problem for their situation. Only 20% of NTIC students disagreed that the homeless were in charge of their situation statement. Initially this appears that students blaming homeless because of their situation and also have bad attitude, however there is evidence that this is false. For example more than two thirds of respondents explained that they either strongly acknowledge or disagree to the statement that 'homeless people do not prefer to get homeless'. An acceptable conclusion is that students recognized that homeless do not select to homeless but at exactly the same time they are accountable for what happen to them. That is recognized by the finding that nearly all students questioned assumed that homeless individuals were subjects. Two third trust this declaration and over one sixth give a neutral response.
In conditions of the behavior of homeless people the view of students the results show that there is overall there divided views on whether homeless people are hostile. However you can find strong frame of mind that homeles people are not really rude. The majority of students stated that they had natural view or disagree with the assertion that homeless people ware rude.
The overall attitude towards homeless by these students correspond to student nurse behaviour examined by Kee Minick and Connor (1999) that discovering that homeless peoples attitudes towards homeless people aren't negative.
Figure. Student Frame of mind Towards Homeless People
Figure. Factors behind Homelessness
The conclusions in Figure 2. address the research question on what students believe that will be the possible triggers for homelessness. The results show that students believe that homeless is triggered mainly by alcholol or financial problems. There is strong point of view that financial problems is the key cause for homeless with two thirds of students firmly agree or agree to this view. This finding is in the same route as research by Kee, Minick and Connor (1999) who discovered that nurses believed environmental factors was a cause of homelessness. Another research by Lee, Jones and Lewis (1990) buy into the finding of this research, which discovered that American public assumed that homeless was brought on poor job opportunities. This situation can lead to financial problems.
In addition the review showed that under one third of students seen that homelessness could be induced by health problems. This finding is in the same course as Kee, Minick and Connor (1999) which discovered that nurses assumed mental health problems was the primary cause of homelessness.
Table. Attitudes on measure to cope with homelessness
Table 1. details the conclusions answering the research goal how students imagine how homeless people should be helped. Students shown strong views on this topic with a huge range of respondents either agreeing or disagreeing with your options listed. Fifty seven percent of college student decided that homeless people could be helped by giving more cover and increasing money for prevention methods. There was balance view on increasing financing to charities, while many 77% of students did not agree that homeless could be helped by counselling. There was litle contract for creating special job programs to cope with homelessness with 77% of students either netural or disagreeing.
Table. Importance of Homelessness other factors
An interesting finding out of this research is that students have very strong view how important homeless is in comparison to other issues. The majority of students acquired the frame of mind that homeless was less important than healthcare (80%), education (70%), criminal offenses (80%) and unemployment (63%). Students were either uncertain or disagreed that homeless was less important than young ones work. It would appear that these social issue tend to be more important or relevant for students than homelessness.
The question of how important homeless is known as is tackled by data in Shape 3. The finding here's that that students did not agree significantly that homeless was an important concern. An average one third of students decided to the assertions that homelessness should be the priority for government, that it was a serious issue and that more should be done. The majority of students were uncertain on these statements with over one third of students neither recognize or disagree that it should be a priority.
The above results are reinforced by Tompsett et al. (2006) which also found that wider general population approved of steps to help the homeless, but that they didn't consider it to be a serious issue.
Figure. Attitude towards importance, concern and action.
The results form the questionnaire claim that students have an overall positive attitude towards homeless. This implies that students do recognize that homeless people aren't totally responsible because of their situation and there are exterior triggers. Furthermore, they support agree to measure to make more house and increasing financing to prevent. Even so it is considered less simportant than other issues and not considered a seious issue that authorities should give higher concern to.
This previous finding mean that support for the homeless could be reduced. This is because according to review by Kee, Minick and Connor (1999) public opinion can be influence about how the homeless are supported.
The small size of the questionnaire and the sample size limited the degree to that your research questions were responded and can be generalised. Even so the results of the analysis did answer the study question of the study to some extent.
Regarding how homeless people are recognized, the questionnaire captured college student attitudes on this area. It was interesting to discover that even though one half of the respondents identified homeless as dependable two thirds of respondents still thought that homeless individuals were victims. Here then the findings highlight a positive or sympathetic view of the homeless. It can be grasped that the homeless aren't considered in a negative light. Furthermore, results were achieved how students perceive the homeless personality. The findings also clearly set up the view that students did not view homeless people as addicts.
In the other part of questions a good knowledge of student frame of mind towards steps and the priority of homelessness was resolved by the conclusions. The study demonstrated that certain options to help the homeless shouldn't be considered. The study highlighted those methods that students thought were most significant including more casing and increasing funding for prevention actions. The findings dealt with the questions of whether more should be to help the homeless, whether it ought to be a government goal and whether students considered homelessness a significant issue. The study provided confirmation that issue was not considered a priority and outlined the attitude that homeless had not been as serious as many other issues including health, education and crime.
Another focus of this study was attended to by the studies. There is clear indication that students looked at financial problems and liquor as the two main causes of homelessness.
The main limitation of this research is that the students at NTIC do not represent the whole of modern culture and and yes it is an extremely small sample. It will only provide notion of part of world that are able to go to school or only teenagers. The portion of society that are not educated or more age will not be representing in this review. The survey may only be completed by people that contain strong view of homeless people.
Some improvements can be made to existing research. Firstly, the size of test for the study should be increase to an increased number. Secondly, the questionnaire can be test twice to check its stability. The questionnaire may possibly also choose questions from other studies where the validity is checked which is strong.
Further research could be undertaken to review the behaviour of student after they experience face-face bank account of homeless person experience. It could also be beneficial to undertake study stereotypes of homeless and measuring to what level students believed lots of stereotypes on homeless to recognize extent of misperceptions.
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