In the section one the research questions, objective and problem assertion described and in pursuing chapter the key books related to the study questions discussed. The best research methodology connected to this review and its own validity is argued in this section. The research strategy which summarize in this chapter could help to collect the necessity information and discover the reliable answers to the study questions and as a result cause the appreciate conclusions. The purpose of this research will explain at the first step and then the research approach and research strategy are explained. More details about data collection methods, inhabitants and sampling methods, the instrument that used for data collection are unveiled in the next and lastly validity of research and moral aspects are talked about.
3. 2 Research Purpose
There are some ways to classify studies. Wiedersheim-Paul and Eriksson talk about there are three sets of research bottom part on the aim of each research; exploratory, descriptive, and explanatory.
3. 2. 1 Exploratory Research
Reynolds (1971) announced the exploratory research allows the researchers to build up some ideas about a problem while they shop around. The exploratory research undertakes to discover what insight of the phenomenon is also to find out some questions to judge the problem to be able to find out the best answer. This kind of research is very useful to good understanding about a vague occurrence with less knowledge about it.
3. 2. 2 Descriptive Research
The main aim of descriptive research is to make a description about a problem which related to individuals or happenings (Patel and Tabelius, 1987) to be able to provide to empirical generalizations. Moreover when finding a cause and result romance is not the account of the analysis using this kind of research is recommended (Wiedersheim-Paul & Eriksson, 1999). Descriptive research is suitable investigation about a clear structured sensation especially as the researcher intends to accumulate supplementary data (Aaker & Day, 1990).
3. 2. 3 Explanatory Research
According to Reynolds (1971), the explanatory research is wonderful for creating ideas which are used to describe the practical generalization. The hypothesis which is developed by researcher is examined practically (Patel and Tabelius, 1987). Yen (2003) suggested this type of research for any cause and result relationship investigation. When a variable in the study cause a different one or the value of one adjustable shape the worthiness of another this research procedure is suggested(Aaker & Day, 1990). Platform on the Wiedersheim-Paul & Eriksson (1999) the explanatory is loved when research workers are in doubt to which model they need to use or the quality or connection is not obviously defined.
3. 2. 4 Research Reason for the Current Study
Regarding to the research questions and aim of this thesis, the exploratory research is more appreciate for this survey as not too much works has been done in the area of the current survey. Using video games to promote is a new subject for marketers who enter trouble to provide products or brands in traditional advertising such as Tv set and movies. Since it was discussed in the first chapter, the main goal of this research is give attention to advergames to be able to indentify the very best product integration technique for the choice product group. Two important research questions are: Are advergame effective to make them aware of products or brands? By leveraging on advergame, which strategies are considered to be the very best by organizations? Therefore, generating a new theory about this new area is the key consideration of this research which is the important characteristic of exploratory researches.
3. 3 Research Approach
Research is categorised into two main types including qualitative and quantitative research (Wiedersheim-Paul & Eriksson 1999). Furthermore in the field of social research the terms qualitative and quantitative are broadly used (Denscombe, 1998). Relating to Denscombe (1998) qualitative and quantitative research can be separated by the characteristics of data and the difference between them do not relate with the model which are being used in the study. Denscombe (1998) argues that using quantities for units analyzing make the primary difference between these two approaches.
3. 3. 1 Quantitative Research
Numerical and empirical data is the main attribute of quantitative research (Denscombe, 1998). The consequence of the study in this kind of research is conducted by systematic observations and experimentations. The quantitative research cab be categorized into two particular organizations; experimental and non experimental. The main difference between two varieties of quantitative research backs to the goal of the research. For experimental research the first goal is collecting successful evidence for the happening which seeks cause and impact relationship. There is at least one changing that named self-employed changing (IV) or treatment. Another variable called based mostly variable is afflicted by independent changing. In an experimental research the unbiased variable is handled by researcher. Changing the treatment condition randomly causes some changes in DV which researcher must measure and record them. By contrast, in an non experimental research, the indie variable aren't manipulated by experts and are examined as they can be found.
One reason to utilize non experimental research is some attribute variables in cultural science can't be transformed such as gender or family statues. Furthermore, occasionally it is unethical to randomly group people and assign them into different treatment condition. The most frequent example is a researcher who seeks to study the impact of the smoking on the fitness of the body need to classify individuals into two sets of smokers and nonsmokers but cannot randomly undertake it. The only way to research and compare the health statues of smokers and nonsmokers is grouping individuals after figuring out who is smoker and who's not. However, other parameters such as era, gender and general health situation is highly recommended.
3. 3. 2 Qualitative Research
Both qualitative and quantitative researches are empirical but unlike quantitative research the form of data in qualitative are not numbers. Researchers by using this kind of research have a tendency to acquire and then examination data in many varieties, mainly non numeric. Checking out the depth instead of breadth is known as and the chief aim is to investigate more details. There may be extensive debate these years about the value of the quantitative and qualitative research especially in the field of social science. Specific researches take different positions from those who opt to use and merge both two strategies to those who consider they are completely different. Scientific and objective varieties of quantitative research will be the base of several arguments among analysts. Therefore, using quantitative analysis becomes more and more popular. With the first glance, using questionnaires appears to belong to quantitative techniques while interview and observations might be looked at as a qualitative research strategy. However, virtually the situation is more technical. In consequence, researches may form and analysis interviews in a quantitative form, as collected non numeric data are categorised and coded in quantities.
Concerned with understanding patterns from actors' own casings of reference
Naturalistic and uncontrolled observation
Close to the data: the 'insider'
Grounded, breakthrough focused, exploratory,
expansionist, descriptive, inductive
Valid: real, abundant, deep data
Ungeneralizable: one case studies
Assumes a dynamic reality
Looks for the facts/causes of communal Phenomena
Obtrusive and controlled measurement
Taken off the data: the 'outsider'
Ungrounded, verification focused,
Reliable: hard and replicable data
Generalizable : multiple case studies
Assumes a stable reality
The main variations between qualitative and quantitative research, (Adapted from Oakley 1999: 156)
3. 3. 3 Research Strategy of the Current Survey
Punch (2005) notes "the question, quantitative or qualitative? is commonly asked, especially by starting researchers. Often, they are adding the 'methods cart' before the 'content equine'. The best advice in those conditions is to step again from questions of method [and tools], and present further concern to the purposes and research questions, bearing in mind that the way questions are asked affects what must be achieved to answer them. "
Regarding to research questions and aim of this research, which aspires to accumulate information about human patterns, the qualitative way is more suited to this survey. The usage of qualitative research appears to be in a position to answers related questions and also package with problem statement that stated in this thesis. Furthermore, profound data is required to lead the best conclusion for the analysis. Quantitative approach can't be applied as learning and measuring the individual's patterns is subjective and non numeric.
3. 4 Sampling Procedure
One important part of the study for researchers is to make a decision whether they should test all the models or just test devices are enough to gathering data. If all devices are protected in a report, it is named a census review. In comparison, if a sample of models is chosen to focus, such a report is named sample survey.
3. 4. 1 Test Items of the existing Study
Participants who play video games, where advergames embed, will be the test units of this review. The study's purpose is not obviously for participants however they are advised that the survey pertains to the computer games. The reason why of telling this covering account is to boost the exterior validity of research because if players know about the object of the study it is much more likely to pay specific attention to the advertisement note which placed within the game titles. All individuals are Malays from both genders and are students in the number of 18- 25 years old which are more drawn to playing games.
3. 5 Sampling Methods
There are large selection of sampling methods which experts can choose between regarding to analyze way and strategy. Two main sets of sampling methods are likelihood and non probability sampling.
3. 5. 1 Non- Likelihood Sampling
Non- likelihood sampling also called non- arbitrary sampling appreciates for any research which faces lack of sampling structure among the population. For example, if a research aims to investigate about a sensitive issue such as sexual orientation in the extra students, accumulating reliable samples is needed to draw respected data. Therefore, largely the researcher depends on non-probability sampling. Low priced and convenience are main characteristics of the approach. Non probability sampling is divided into six different subgroups; convenience, voluntary, quota, purposive, dimensional and snowball sampling.
3. 5. 2 Likelihood Sampling
Base of the probability sampling or arbitrary sampling approach is in likelihood theory. Two regulations, including Legislation of Statistical Regularity and Legislation of Inertia of Large Numbers, form this sampling strategy. This approach provides equal potential for selection for those elements of population, so it is known as non-zero random sampling. For example, if the sample's body is 200 students, each university student has one chance to select (1/200). Probability sampling is divided into these subgroups; simple arbitrary sampling, organized, stratified, cluster and stage sampling.
3. 5. 3 Sampling Approach to the existing Study
Using a convenience sampling strategy things recruit through class announcements that require review volunteers. 90 undergraduate students aged 18-25 years need to participate in the study. This sample offers a wide opportunity of responses from people with little if any gaming experience to prospects who play games daily. Convenience sampling approach is the best way for this study to gathering information effectively and quickly from users of society who are quickly available and accessible.
3. 6 Data Collection Methods
Two types of data collection sources are key and supplementary (Wiedersheim-Paul & Eriksson 1999). Extra data have been gathered by past analysts for this purpose which they had while key data is obtained straight by own researcher for the first time for that special purpose which is your brain of her/him. Supplementary data can be compiled from both shared and unpublished files and from options such annul record of the federal government organization, financial record of the corporations and census reports. Main data collection methods are interview and observation. One common device for gathering information is questionnaire. Each questionnaire includes some queries that correlated to the condition of study and intends to acquire answers from respondents.
3. 6. 1 Data Assortment of the existing Study
The principal data collection instrument which used for the existing exploratory research is questionnaire. Before playing the game, participants are asked to read a full page of instructions about how to experience the games. And immediately after 15 minutes playing the video games they fill up the questionnaire. 19 questions are asked during four different phases. The first step which is approximately personal information includes 6 questions. Term used in advertising is the title of the next part including 3 questions. This part aims to identify how much individuals are familiar with advertising in video games. Personal ideas of participants on advertising and their behaviour are assessed during third parts by requesting five questions. Within the last part the ability to recall advertisements which inserted within the game are evaluated. Recall query would be: which brand or product will you remember discovering in the overall game? Finally members are asked whether they had played the overall game before taking part in the study. They also query because of their hypotheses regarding the goal of the study. Of course nothing of individuals are informed about the aim of the analysis before requesting the recall activity. The recall level are evaluated and depending on collected information the best effective product integration technique for desire product category will be described.
3. 7 Validity of Study
One of the first decisions which must be taken by researchers is where the test should be conducted, laboratory or field. Usually, lab experiment has better interior validity in compare to field research. Despite the fact that the extraneous parameters are manipulated by researchers in lab environment, analysts do not have a tendency to use lab experiment due to lake of external validity of review which is establishing in unrealistic area (Malhotra and Birks, 2003). On the other hand, low internal validity and high exterior validity will be the complete opposite characteristics of field review (Malhotra and Birks, 2003).
3. 7. 1 Validity of the existing Study
The current research is conducted within an artificial area which potentially can easily change extraneous variable as well as the level of revealing to the stimulus is in order. In addition, in order to expand the exterior validity of study, three real life game titles with real product placements are made a decision to apply. An appropriate room is chosen to make the study area closer to the true environment. Using these setting help the researcher to make certain the experiment has been conducted in a realistic environment as much as possible while managing the extraneous adjustable promise a reliable final result have been drown.
3. 8 Honest Aspects
The main honest problem of this analysis which must be looked at is explaining the purpose of study. They are told the thing of the survey is the grade of video games rather than expressing them that the survey aims to review the effectiveness of advergames. If the reality has been told to participants it could have the key have an effect on in validity of the survey. This issue resolves by explaining the participants immediately after completing information collection.
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