Objective principle of differentiation of sciences...

Objective principle of the differentiation of sciences

As an object of science, man is a representative of the animal world. It is the result of the evolution of life forms on the Earth, which relates it to the subject domain of biology, archeology and other sciences. In fact, man is an object of knowledge of all sciences. Some of them study his body organization, others - mental.

The corporal organization of man is an integral synthesis of all the properties of matter studied in physics, chemistry and biology. The bodily organization of a person, limited in space and time, is studied in these properties by subject areas of mathematics and history. As a result, there is anthropometry and chronicle (in relation to a person - a biographical method).

The mental organization of man is an inner world, outwardly invisible, ideal and infinite. It is given to a person in one hundred sensations, experiences and perceptions. The inner world of man reveals himself in various forms of external activity (object-practical activity). The forms of manifestation of the psychic in the processes of materialization become objects of knowledge of the inner world of man. Cognition of human psychology occurs indirectly through reactions, actions, statements, object-practical activities, actions and behavior, as well as appearance. In them, the internal properties of a person's mental organization are objectified. The primary elements of the inner world of man are his psychic properties which are repeatedly complicated as the functional interrelationships of man with the objects of nature, society, the subject environment and himself. As a result, mental properties are transformed into mental formations that make up the qualitative structure of a person's mental organization (feelings, intelligence, character, abilities, etc.).

Mental properties are a specific subject of psychological science. They stem from the involuntary activity of the organism and the arbitrary activity of man. Mental properties are differentiated according to their sources of origin into psychophysiological, psychophysical, psycho-reflexive, socio-psychological, activity-psychological, mental. These properties are implicit in the mental organization of a person who shows or does not show them in their subjective activity. Man as a subject of mental, psychological and subject-practical activity brings in them something subjective, individual, inherent only to him. As a result, a person becomes a subject (activator) of his activities, actions and behavior.

Subjectivity is manifested in the arbitrariness and intentionality of actions, actions, behavior and activities. Actions, actions, behavior and human activities are complex deterministic phenomena. Therefore, they become objects of many sciences, each of which has a specific subject, which gives rise to the problem of intersubject relations in the cognition of man as a subject of interaction with the world of things, people and himself. This circumstance, however, according to BG Ananiev, puts psychological science at the center of scientific knowledge of man. Intersubject synthesis acts in this case as the principle of reproduction of the integral integrity of the image of the object (person). Subjectivity turns the process of cognition of a person into the process of self-knowledge , which, in essence, is a psychological cognition a source of psychological knowledge and forerunner psychological science.

The object principle of the classification of sciences allows us to consider psychological science in the number of natural, and in the number of humanitarian, and in the number of social sciences, and in the number of technical (engineering psychology) sciences. It allows us to disclose the intersubject connections of the particular sciences, but it is insufficient to determine their specificity. As a result, psychology is often denied the existence of its own object of knowledge, because it is an ideal reality hidden behind the outer shell of the human body organization and its material actions.

If we turn to the inner structure of the properties of man as an integral object of nature, we will find a more convincing basis for classifying sciences according to their subject matter.

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