Occupational Stress And Coping: Age And Gender Differences

The matters of stress and coping have obtained popular attention in the professional literature and popular press. This widespread attention is because of the fact that extra stress has been recognized to have harmful effects on an individual's physical and state of mind. Moreover, stress is a common factor impacting on all aspects of life including social relationships, work, institution, and family (Greenglass, 2002). There's also been a surge of coping research over the last three decades as well. Coping strategies play a critical role in an individual's physical and mental well-being when faced with obstacles and negative occasions. Also, coping may very well be an approach motivated to manage goals and utilize cultural resources such as co-worker and family support to achieve one's goals (Greenglass, 2002).

One form of stress that is often examined is occupational stress, also called job or work stress. Occupational stress is common in the current fast-past world. Such stress results in a variety of negative health results, impacting not only the average person, but also the family and the business at which the average person is employed. It stands to reason a solid understanding of the causes and results of occupational stress can result in better job satisfaction and advanced health among employees, both young and old.

The literature on aging in the workplace has been receiving more attention as the amount of retirees reaching the age of Community Security and Medicare is increasing. With more People in america finding their retirement incomes insufficient to keep up their standard of wellness or simply wanting to supplement what they acquire, the demographic transfer of older employees continuing at work has instigated a complete new area of research on ageing and stress in the workplace and the coping mechanisms of the elderly. Hence, this books review plays a part in the knowledge of occupational stress and coping mechanisms by first researching the idea of stress, its triggers and implications, and founded models within the books that try to explain the romantic relationships among individuals, environmental characteristics, and stress. Next, this newspaper will review the books regarding coping mechanisms and the experience of stress and how older workers specifically deal with occupational stress. It is imperative to understand how older staff in high stress occupations deal with this kind of stress because the past literature has failed to address the importance of how more aged workers may take care of occupational stress in a different way than their younger counterparts and exactly how they may distinctively cope with occupational stress.

General Stress

The idea of psychological stress has two unique ideas, stressors, which make reference to environmental characteristics that cause effects in an individual, and stress, the actual negative reaction to the stressors. While stress itself is most often associated only with the problem and the next response, this conceptualization will not consider mediating factors or specific susceptibility to the occurrence. Therefore, stress is more aptly discussed consequently or product of the relationship between individuals and their environment. So, most difficult situations are not, in and of themselves nerve-racking, but instead are defined that way by the unique individual involved in the situation. That is, what one person may deem tense, another individual may view as comfortable (Bamber, 2006).

Stress, generally, may also be viewed in a far more positive manner. For example, McGowan, Gardner, and Fletcher (2006) characterized stress as an interaction between requirements made upon a person and the ability to respond to those demands. The outcome of this relationship do not need to be negative since there are present a term for positive stress known as eustress that is defined as the positive reaction to a stressor as mentioned by the positive mental health state of the average person. Alternatively, distress is characterized by negative affect, anger, or disappointment while eustress is seen as a positive affect, wish, and meaningfulness.

Larzarus and Folkman (1980) developed the Cognitive Theory of Stress and Coping. This theory of stress suggests that there exists a relationship that is transactional between individuals and their environment which is often strenuous, could exceed their resources and become threatening to their well-being. Judkins (2001) advised that the emphasis of stress is on the individual's perception or cognitive appraisal of its importance that considers the situational demands and individuals' capacity and resources for dealing with that situation. Thompson (1992) used Lazarus and Folkman's theoretical construction to help expand emphasize that stress is not an object in the world, but this can be a reaction of the organism to the incidents on the planet. Thus, individuals experience stress based mostly about how they react to life incidents such as stress at the job.

Occupational Stress

As occupational stress has turned into a common fixture of the lives of million of Americans, consequences of the type of stress for both employees and organizations has received growing interest. Occupational stress is related to a number of factors both exterior and intrinsic to the office. Intrinsic factors include work overload or underload (i. e. , boredom), move work, extended hours, travel requirement, greater work conditions, and poor physical work settings. Other factors associated with it include role ambiguity, role discord, mistrust or envy of coworkers, job insecurity, downsizing, poor marketing communications among employees, low acceptance by superiors, and low decision specialist (Biron, Ivers, Brun, & Cooper, 2006; Danna & Griffin, 1999; Sexton, Teassley, Cox, & Carroll, 2007). Occupational stress typically occurs when an individual activities an overload of stressors stemming basically from the occupational environment. Bridger, Kilminster, and Slaven (2006) defined a work place stressor as an aspect related to the work environment which poses demands that the individual is not ready to comprehend, and therefore causing strain. So, a stress is the effect of a stressor. For instance, in wanting to meet an important deadline the employee is unsure about meeting and hence the worker may feel over-worked and skill-deficient. Past literature has specifically centered on researching domains that are the physical characteristics of the occupational weather such as heating, crowding, and noise and even the personal characteristics of workers within the occupational environments including their coping styles, strong beliefs about preventing stress, and cognitive capacities (Byrne & Espnes, 2008).

Sparks and Cooper (1997) claim that occupational stress can derive from a combination of work stressors. Work interactions and interactions between supervisors and co-workers can be one source of both strain and support. For instance, if employees considered their supervisors to be hostile towards them, they experienced more pressure at the job that those employees who acquired supportive bosses. In addition, if employees acquired brief interactions with the supervisors, they could think that their supervisors are taking them for awarded and are unsupportive of these work.

Cartwright and Cooper (1997) argued that another potential stressor can be considered a lack of job security. If a worker working in an organization is uncertain of his or her job position, it may affect the entire work productivity and satisfaction of the staff. The reason is that this employee might constantly be under the strain of fear of job loss. Also, negative performance appraisals and persistent role ambiguity can be harmful to worker well-being. Additionally, over-promotion such as stress of having reached a career ceiling can make stress intolerable. In other words, an employee that has taken a command role or has been laden with many duties by the business might feel over-worked and exhausted.

Cooper and Lewis (1994) recommended the actual fact that the work-family program may also be a likely stressor for employees dealing with occupational stress. Experiencing work overload, lack of role quality, and a hostile environment at the job may affect the home environment because the staff brings these problems home with him and thus can strain interactions with family. Danna and Griffin (1999) also decided with Cooper and Lewis that factors related right to the work environment are not the sole potential causes of stress however the website link between home and work may possibly also present problems. Troubles in handling the dual environments, particularly among two-income couples or individuals experiencing an individual crisis, could donate to workplace stress.

Other research shows that people with certain personality traits are more susceptible to occupational stress. For example, the "Type D" personality is associated with introversion and neuroticism. In a study of the role of the sort D personality in identified stress, burnout, and mental health disorder among healthcare individuals, Oginska-Bulik (2006) reported that individuals with this personality type were more likely to perceive their work conditions as stressful, scheduled to lack of rewards, control, and responsibility, and would experience greater regularity of burnout by means of emotional exhaustion, and illustrate mental health disorders, including stress and anxiety, insomnia, and depressive symptoms. Other analysts have stated that individuals with high positive have an effect on and low negative impact demonstrate lower levels of blood pressure in response to stress than do individuals with both a higher positive and negative have an impact on (Norlander, Bood, & Archer, 2002).

The consequences of occupational stress can range in severeness from light to severe and impact both professional and personal lives. In one study of college or university staff members, individuals discovered professional aspects adversely influenced by stress such as job performance, interpersonal work relations, dedication to the business, and extra-role performance which refers to involvement in extra responsibilities at work or willingness to work extra hours (Gillespie, Walsh, Winefield, Dua, & Stough, 2001). As previously mentioned, occupational stress can also spillover into one's personal life. Negative repercussions within this site include physical health issues, such as weight damage, fatigue, back pain; psychological health issues such as burnout, anger, irritability, stress, and feeling overcome; as well as strained family and personal relationships (Gillespie, Walsh, Winefield, Dua, & Stough, 2001). Several models on occupational stress have been proposed and have influenced modern day organizational stress research and they are discussed in the next sections. Models of Occupational Stress

The Demand-Control Model of Occupational Stress

Developed by Karasek (1979), the job demand-control model explains the relationships among job demand, job control, and mental health strain in the workplace. Job requirements may be defined as the amount of workload experienced by a worker, while job handles refer to a worker's sense of autonomy in the workplace and the capability to control the reaction to job duties and how to complete them. Yet another aspect, support, was put into this model in the early 1990s by other experts and this aspect consisted of the instrumental and emotional assistance provided generally by immediate supervisors to the work (Tansey, Mizelle, Ferrin, Tachopp, & Frain, 2004). Additionally it is a theoretical model that advises psychological strain to be a consequence of a blend of factors. Tension from employment environment is inspired by work requirements and by the quantity of autonomy workers identified they have got in facing these work requirements. These two aspects of the work situation stand for the instigators of action such as issues, work load requires that place workers ready that is motivated by stress. Quite simply, occupational stress is most likely to derive from an discussion of low job control and high work needs. The main theme of the work Demand and Control model is the fact job control can buffer up against the unwanted effects of high work requirements on psychological tension.

The Job-Demand Control model involves four dimensions, each incorporating various degrees of job demand and control. The to begin the three dimensions, termed "High Tension Jobs", contends that the adverse effects of psychological tension, including anxiety, unhappiness, exhaustion, and physical health problems happen when job demand is high but job control or decision latitude is low. In situations with high levels of stress or tension, the producing arousal becomes damaging when the worker has little to or no control over his environment and the constraints that restrict how he can respond to the strain (Karasek & Theorell, 1990, p. 31).

The second aspect of the model, known as "Active Jobs", is characterized by high levels of both subconscious demand and control. In this example, workers hold the freedom to make use of their skills and skills to mitigate negative subconscious stressors. The vitality from these stressors is then translated into action through active problem handling, which results in little subconscious disturbance and average amounts of psychological stress (p. 35). For instance, the work of heart surgeons where psychological stresses such as operating on the heart and soul and pressure to perform the operation on time is common practice, however, they involve some decision latitude to make decisions in keeping the life span of the patient.

"Low Strain Jobs", the third kind of situation identified by Karasek and Theorell (1990), are defined by few mental health needs and high degrees of control. Such jobs are associated with leisure and leisure and low levels of psychological tension and physical health problems. There are many challenges in the workplace, and the staff member possesses the capability to respond to any problems that may appear (p. 36). A good example of low strain careers may be monitor technicians who keep an eye on patient heartbeats and only are accountable to the nurses if they visit a spike in the patient's tempo. Other than that, the job itself is comfortable because whatever you do is stay in front of the screen until an abnormal heart tempo is found out.

The final element of the Job-Demand Control model is "Passive Jobs", characterized by low levels of demand and low levels of control. In this kind of situation, the writers contended that the worker's skills and capabilities eventually wither, leading to negative learning, loss of skills, and low levels of leisure and politics activity beyond the work environment (p. 37). The inability to check and execute one's own ideas for enhancing the work environment and a lack of challenges, which identify low control, contributes to loss of inspiration and productivity. Careers with low degrees of both demand and control are also associated with average levels of psychological stress and disorder (p. 38). A good example of a passive job might be janitorial obligations. In this type of job, an individual is not challenged enough to do something positive about the task because the task requires minimal special knowledge or skills with little discretion of how to complete the work.

Mixed support for the Job-Demand Control model is available in the literature encircling occupational stress. Dollard, Winefield, and De Jong (2000) used the model to research dissimilarities in self-reported degrees of job pressure and production among different profession teams, contending that occupational stress was anticipated mainly to environmental factors alternatively than personal characteristics. The writers accumulated data on negative affectivity, work place, emotional pressure, and productivity. Findings indicated a negative work environment significantly correlated with job stress. The level of job demand correlated positively with mental exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment, and negatively with job satisfaction. Job control, however, favorably correlated with the second option two factors, while cultural support correlated negatively with mental exhaustion and depersonalization.

Rusli, Edimansya, and Naing (2008) also applied the Job-Demand Control model to research the relationship between job demand, job control, interpersonal support, stress, stress and anxiety, depression, and standard of living. The findings disclosed that increased interpersonal support was a predictor of standard of living, with decreased cultural support, correlating to increased health threats. Other results demonstrated a marriage between social support and job control and demand. Results suggested that job demand was inversely related to environmental work conditions and job control was positively correlated with sociable relationships in the workplace. The researchers concluded that stress, nervousness, and major depression mediated the relationship between job demand and standard of living. An additional derive from this research, which adds an interesting perspective to the work Demand Control model, was that job control, stress, anxiety, depression, and public relationships increased with increasing age group of the staff member.

Another review conducted by Tarris and Feij (2004) resolved the impact of age on occupational stress, delivering findings that didn't necessarily support Karasek and Theorell's model. In this study, the experts looked into how job demands, control, and stress impact working dreams of young personnel with regards to the motivation to learn from more experienced co-workers and supervisors. The info was accumulated from younger workers over an interval of two years. Cross-sectional results supported each of the four tenets of the Job Demand Control model, let's assume that reduced job tension translated into increases in inspiration to learn; however, a few of these results did not hold true over time. For instance, the authors confirmed that increased job demand and control resulted in increased learning in the short term, but no increases in learning over the future. Within these conditions as time passes, the level of strain decreased, likely due to the opportunity to utilize new strategies in dealing with strain. These results much like the study conducted by Rusli et al. (2008), claim that changes may occur over time which cannot be explained completely by the Job Demand Control model.

While the prior two studies engaged younger personnel with a mean time of 26 who had been adopted for a amount of time, Totterdell, Hardwood, and Wall membrane (2006) followed several workers for six months whose mean years was 48 years old. The purpose of their study was to research the applicability of the work Demand Control model to changes within the average person regarding work characteristics and stress as time passes. The researchers accumulated data pertaining to optimism, emotional stability, problem-solving requirements, time and method control, mental support, and job-related stress. Results recommended that while needs, control, and support all affected job strain, they performed so in an independent manner alternatively than interactively, which is unlike the model. However, when considering degrees of personal optimism, connection between demands and control was discovered. For example, pessimists experienced increased levels of pressure during durations of popular and low control than do optimists. This study shows that the the different parts of the work Demand Control model influenced by extraneous factors, such as individual emotional characteristics, though it provided no clue as to if younger workers would deliver similar results. In addition, studies done on job demand control model have searched more at mental health work requirements of employees generally speaking without paying close attention to the types of work requirements that are stressful to personnel from various teams (e. g. , aged versus younger individuals). Yet, a recently available review by Shultz, Wang, Crimmins, and Fisher (2009) do find some support of interactive effects of demand and control buttons for older individuals, however, not for younger workers.

The Work/Reward Imbalance Model of Occupational Stress

A second style of occupational stress is the Work/Reward Imbalance model or ERI, which offers a far more subjective sizing to the work Demand Control model. This model asserts that occupational status and successful role performance supply the chance to increase self-esteem. However, subconscious benefits associated with work depend upon both the individual's work and the rewards obtained in response to people efforts, such as money or job opportunities. A person who puts forth great efforts, whether scheduled to extrinsic motivation such as job responsibility and requirements; intrinsic motivation like staff over-commitment to strive to do the best work possible face to face or a mixture of both, but receives few rewards experiences mental stress and negative health consequences (Calnan, Wainwright, & Almond, 2000). Over-commitment, one third sizing of the model, may be considered a risk factor that influences the balance between efforts and rewards (Niedhammer, Chastang, David, Barouhiel, & Barrandon, 2006).

Although this model can serve alone as a useful platform for understanding the impact of psychosocial factors on mental and physical health effects, it is further strengthened when considered with the Job Demand Control model. For instance, Niedhammer et al. (2006) investigated the health results of staff in a firm that distributed publications. In light of the Job Demand Control model, results indicated that, among male personnel, job strain dished up as a risk factor for depressive symptoms, likely credited to low degrees of control and decision-making expert among such personnel. Furthermore, women experienced low levels of social support, yet another component of the work Demand Control model, were at better risk for depressive symptoms. When looked at in light of Result/Reward Imbalance model, the info mentioned that, among male individuals, this imbalance was associated with depressive symptoms and psychiatric disorders, possibly due to low rewards and job instability. Taken along, both models provided a more well-rounded picture of the relationship between work-related factors, including pressure, sociable support, and an imbalance between effort and reward, upon the event of depressive symptoms which is a negative health final result.

Moreover, Siegrist, Dagmar Starke, Chandola, Godin, Marmot, Niedhammer, and Peter (2004) trust Niedhammer et al about ERI by recommending that the results of occupational stress are related to the total amount between the amount of work an employee puts in the job and the level of rewards they get such as money, self-esteem, and job security that can be gained from the effort help with. The model further argues that those who are excessively motivated to be focused on their careers may expose themselves to high work needs or they could exaggerate their work beyond what is required for a specific job. For instance, employees might walk out their way to make the supervisor feel worthy of them and subsequently receive a kind of monetary reward. This may cause mental health stress and influence the fitness of the average person.

Depressive symptoms are but one of many negative health benefits that could occur when perceived effort will not correspond with identified rewards (Martin-Fernandez, Gomez-Gascon, Beamud-Lagos, Cortes-Rubio, & Alberquilla-Menendez-Asenjo, 2007). Preckel, Meinel, Kudielka, Huag, and Fischer (2007) reported on the effects of effort/reward imbalance upon the health outcomes of skilled workers within an plane manufacturing plant. Results mentioned that over-commitment, a 3rd dimension to the model, increased the chance of poor health effects, including self-reported health-related standard of living factors such as physical performing; flexibility from pain; vitality; vital exhaustion, characterized by lack of energy, trouble sleeping, irritability, and apathy; stressed out mood; and negative affectivity. Another study recommended that burnout and the desire to leave the medical profession positively correlated with imbalances between attempts and rewards (Hasselhorn, Tackenberg, & Peter, 2004). It's important to consider, however, that the idea of "rewards" is a subjective subject, with some individuals inserting higher value on certain rewards which may be considered unimportant to others.

Voltmer, Kieschke, Schwappach, Wirsching, and Spahn (2008) attempted to further clarify the relationship between initiatives/rewards and health final results by categorizing individuals regarding to correlated psychosocial factors and effects. In their study of medical students and medical professionals, the authors accumulated data pertaining to professional commitment, resistance to stress, and psychological well-being. Based after the specific health risks that correlated with each one of these work-related behaviors, researchers identified four categories of individuals. Type "G" or the Healthy Ambitious Type folks are ambitious at work but remain capable of maintaining a wholesome psychological distance from the environment. Such behaviors correlated with amount of resistance to stress and positive feelings. The second type of individual, Type "S" or the Unambitious Type, exhibited lower dedication to work and an increased sense of detachment from the work environment. However, individuals in this group also have scored well on measures of interior balance, satisfaction with life, and communal support, indicating an overall sense of determination with their personal lives. Like Type G individuals, people of the group didn't experience any significant negative health outcomes; however, the lack of motivation was discovered as you negative end result.

The left over two groups of individuals proven negative health effects related to behaviours at the job. "Type A" individuals, described as exceedingly ambitious, were characterized by excessive commitment to their work and difficulty maintaining an mental distance from that environment. Health outcomes for they included higher risk for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. "Type B" individuals, thought as "resigned" shown low results for professional dedication, mental distancing, and coping skills. Benefits for they included better risk for mental instability, dissatisfaction with work and life, and limited social support, which are related to job burnout. This review clearly illustrates the main idea of the Result/Reward Imbalance model for the reason that psychosocial factors related to the task environment serve as risk factors for physical and mental health final results.

Person-Environment Fit

The Person-Environment Fit Model or P-E Fit explains that positive outcomes occur when folks are closely matched to their work environment regarding career-relevant personality type (Carless, 2005). Since individuals are often unique in regards to personal qualities, expertise, coping skills, and needs, different individuals may understand the same job in different ways. What one individual views to be demanding and difficult, another staff may consider the same situation as challenging and enjoyable. Thus, based after this theory, it is important to strongly match an employee's unique characteristics with specific features of careers. When an appropriate match between your employee and the task environment prevails, occupational stress is minimized; however, when a poor match is out there, occupational stress may be high (Bamber, 2006).

According to the books, a number of different types of fit arise within the world of P-E Fit: included in these are Person-Organization Fit, Person-Job Fit, and Person-Innovation Fit. Carless (2005) defined Person-Job fit as match between an individual's knowledge, skills, and capabilities and job or personal requirements and what the job provides. When both of these dimensions strongly match, positive results arise, such as low attrition rate, high job satisfaction, low turnover, and high work performance. Person-Organization fit identifies the compatibility between the individual's and the organization's needs, needs, and characteristics. People who perceive an organization strongly mirrors their own prices, personality, behaviour, and goals are more likely to seek out and accept employment there.

Person-Innovation fit, a far more recent development structured upon the Person-Environment fit model, talks about how people react to inventions and predicts the outcomes of innovation execution on a person level. Prices and skills are two unique attributes associated with the concept of invention. The values feature identifies the perceived ideals and goals root the innovation, while the abilities attribute identifies skills, knowledge, and know-how needed for successful execution of advancement. Research reveals that different kinds of person-innovation fit predicts different types of individual benefits. More specifically, value-fit is more meticulously correlated with job satisfaction, firm or job dedication, well-being, and low stress. As the value-fit correlates with affective final results, abilities-fit correlates with behavioral benefits such as the use of technology or creativity and innovation implementation work (Choi & Price, 2005).

In addition to the characteristics associated with these three types of fit, including knowledge, skills, abilities, would like, needs, and prices, another variance on the Person-Environment fit focuses upon a person's pursuits. The Interest-Vocation fit suggests that a person's pursuits are likely involved in job satisfaction add up to the role performed by skills and ability. Furthermore, these factors are directly related, as research signifies that among a lot of people, cognitive ability positively correlates with Interest-Vocation fit. More specifically, among individuals whose hobbies lie mostly in the investigative, imaginative, and communal domains, high cognitive capacity positively correlates with successful Interest-Vocation fit. Individuals with high cognitive capacity whose interests are characterized as standard or realists were less inclined to take part in vocations that matched their passions than their lower-cognitive capacity counterparts (Reeve & Heggestad, 2004).

In spite of the support within the books for the applicability of Person-Environment fit model in predicting factors such as job satisfaction and stress, criticism does indeed exist. Smart and Pryor (2005), for example, discussed a number of the criticisms found in the literature. Matching to these creators, one problem with the model is that the interaction between the person and the surroundings is characterized in conditions of qualities. These traits, combined with the ideas of "persons" and "environment" represent static ideas that not represent the changing dynamics of today's work place. Another criticism is that research shows that fit between your person and the surroundings correlates improperly with job satisfaction and explains only an extremely small percentage of variance related to outcome options. Other issues with this model include inadequate conceptualization and measurement within the literature with regards to the conditions "person" and "environment" and the failing to incorporate the complexities and uncertainties associated with a changing job environment in to the model.


Coping with stress has become an important area for research in minimizing workers' perceived level of stress. Attention has been focused on coping strategies and ways in which they can lessen stress levels and promote top quality of life. Regarding to Folkman and Lazarus (1980) coping considers the behavioral and cognitive attempts to familiarize, tolerate, and reduce the internal and external demands and issues included in this. These coping initiatives provide two major functions: the management of person-environment fit this is the way to obtain stress (problem-focused) and the regulation of stressful thoughts (emotion-focused). Additionally, it is important to understand that individuals make use of both protection functions to manage stressful demands. In essence, coping efforts are created in response to stress appraisals.

Folkman and Lazarus (1988) argued that cognitive appraisal may take two forms: most important and secondary. They emphasized principal cognitive appraisal in which the specific asks "What do I have at stake as of this come across?" The response to this question relies on the level and emotional quality. For example, if a person's self-esteem is on the line at work, there is a potential for anger or shame whereas if a person's physical well-being is on the line, there is potential for fear and get worried. In the secondary appraisal, the individual's concern is due to asking the question "What can I do?" or what coping options do I have in dealing with my problem. One third kind of appraisal, called reappraisal occurs based on feedback from principal and secondary appraisal. For example, a person must first decide that the work is demanding (main appraisal) and then determine how to handle it by requesting assistance (secondary appraisal). At some point in time when the individual has successfully coped with a particular situation, he no longer perceives the situation as nerve-racking or threatening to well-being. Moreover, Folkman and Lazarus (1980) claim that coping is multidimensional with respect to the nature of your demanding situation and how the thoughts of stress an individual experience change as a particular situation unfolds. Thus, the coping process is the process of thinking at that moment and then executing a situation-specific action when met with a challenging situation.

Coping Mechanisms

Equally important in the use of models to understand occupational stress is the analysis of coping strategies employed by individuals. An array of coping strategies can be found, perhaps as assorted as individuals themselves. Researchers often distinguish these strategies as emotion-focused versus problem-focused coping. Lazarus and Folkman (1980) have described problem-focused coping as work to modify the problem at hand such as generating options to resolve the problem, evaluating the professionals and negative aspects of different problems, and utilizing steps to solve the problem. Additionally, this type of coping is more effective when the individual possesses a high amount of control over external stressors and factors and is associated with general well being. On the other hand, emotion-focused coping requires aiming to manage the emotional problems that is associated with a particular situation and often will involve coping mechanisms such as denial, seeking, sociable support, positive reframing of events, and venting of thoughts. The literature suggests that emotion-focused types of coping (e. g. , humor or prayer) will be effective when there's been an appraisal that little or nothing can be carried out to modify harmful, threatening, or challenging environmental or work conditions

Research indicates that individuals in various occupations may rely upon different kinds of coping strategies to offer with stress. One review, which explored occupational stress and coping strategies among professional older registered nurses, reported these individuals most often implemented emotion-focused coping mechanisms, including intentionally calming themselves down. Internalization of the strain, verbalizing stressors with friends and coworkers, joking, and distracting themselves from stress with interests beyond work were other emotion-focused strategies recognized in the study (Perry, 2005). Just like the nurses in this review, IT managers in another study indicated that communal support was an important and effective coping system. However, these individuals also relied upon problem-focused coping mechanisms, such as adding resources, problem-solving, and planning to manage occupational stress. It was interesting to notice that men in the study used problem handling more regularly than women (Richmond & Skitmore, 2006).

Proactive behavior can be viewed as anticipating potential stressors and behaving in advance to avoid the stressors from happening. Proactive habit can eliminate significant amounts of stress before it actually occurs by eliminating, offsetting, or by modifying impending stressful happenings. According to Aspinwall and Taylor (1997), skills that are associated with this tendencies include goal-setting, future planning, and corporation of thoughts. Regarding to Greenglass (2002), in proactive coping, individuals have a eye-sight. They see future hazards, requirements and opportunities but do not psychologically think of the as dangers or loss but instead perceive challenging situations as troubles into the future. Coping becomes more about goal management than risk management. Essentially, these individuals take personal fee of their demanding demands by functioning on those to provide future success and personal growth.

Gender Differences on Coping with Occupational Stress

To further understand the coping literature, it is imperative to consider the types of gender distinctions associated with stress and coping. A couple of few distinctions, if any, in the amount of occupational stress women and men experience and survey (Martocchio & O'Leary, 1989). However, past literature has shown that men and women may differ constantly in the ways they handle the different resources of occupational stress (Quick, Quick, Nelson, & Hurrell, 1997). For example, one stress minimizing strategy that women favor compared to men is the use of public support to buffer, or protect, from the damaging effects of stress (Cohen & Willis, 1985). Various studies report that men change from women in the type of coping mechanisms used. Men generally use more problem-focused coping strategies as mentioned (Folkman & Lazarus, 1980) and women emotion-focused coping strategies (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989). Patton and Goddard (2006) reported that women experience more burnout, stress, and exhaustion compared to men and demonstrate higher rates of work-related physical health problems, mental disease, and tiredness than men. In another review, regarding New Zealand police officers, the women were more carefully associated with leave and erotic harassment, the previous of which was adversely associated with job satisfaction and positively associated with turnover rate (Brough & Shape, 2004). Also associated with job satisfaction and reduced stress among women are a sense of autonomy, interactions with co-workers, and the capability to make valuable efforts (Hill, Leinbaugh, Bradley, & Hazler, 2005). Depressive symptoms caused by occupational stress also correlated with gender, with women experiencing more depressive symptoms than men (Burbeck, Coomber, Robinson, & Todd, 2002).

Research indicates that women and men also fluctuate in the types of coping mechanisms they typically use to deal with stress. For example, men use more maladaptive coping strategies, take in more liquor, and make poorer decisions regarding food and nourishment. Men also tend to decided problem-focused coping strategies rather than emotion-based mechanisms. Women have a tendency to use more adaptive coping strategies such as seeking support from others and as mentioned emotion-based mechanisms (Raj, 2006; Patton & Goddard, 2006). Such strategies are associated with fewer health problems than the use of liquor as a coping system (Torkelson & Muhonen, 2004). Long (1990) shows that since studies displaying gender differences in coping have been conducted in various contexts, the belief that women manage in a unaggressive way can be seen as a gender-role stereotype. Long and Cox (2000) explain that coping occurs in a context that reflects an unequal syndication of electricity and resources. Narayan, Menon, and Spector (1999) claim that the manner of coping differs across the organization hierarchy, when you are more problem-focused in higher positions such as company CEO and more emotion-focused in lower-level positions such as small store professionals.

Christie and Shultz (1998) emphasized the role of potential gender distinctions by focusing on the influx of women employees in the labor force to comprehend work stress. They discovered that in general, there are no significant differences in coping mechanisms between women and men. However, they have find some differences in how men and women responded to stress. The researchers found that all sorts of interpersonal support were significantly correlated with job satisfaction. However, get away coping and exercise weren't significantly correlated with outcome variables. Women tended to utilize coping strategies that were more emotional established instead of men who used problem-based coping. They have pointed out that the principles of stress and coping have been researched from a male perspective, with no gender concern being considered.

It is interesting to notice that, relating to Promecene and Monga (2003), failing of other studies to discover gender differences in stress and coping skills may be because of the use of closed-ended questions, alternatively than open-ended questions, which elicit richer and more descriptive responses.

Age Differences on Coping with Occupational Stress

A growing ratio of the labor force is occupied by more mature Baby Boomers (Barnes-Farrell, 2005; Alley & Crimmins, 2007). To understand the idea of age in the labor force, we must have the ability to pay special attention to the needs of old workers and how they deal with occupational stress. Furthermore, we must have the ability understand the cognitive and psychological requirements that work places on more aged workers and how we can help them achieve success in their job. Era related differences in a reaction to physical stressors can occur via an employee's physical functions and mental ability.

Past research has focused on relying on stress models that look at the typical characteristics of the task task and the task environment that can impede the functions of workers. Much of the research carried out has been powered to identify possible gaps between the task, the work environment, the physical/mental demands, and limitations of employees. When there is a mismatch between your activity and physical/subconscious characteristics of the individual and work place, the effect is a stress response to control the person-environment fit (Barnes-Farell, 2005).

Gender is not the one demographic factor to impact occupational stress and coping mechanisms - age group may play an important role as well. As the books is not abundant with relation to the impact of age on these factors, some studies do claim that younger and old workers may react diversely to occupational stress. For instance, relating to Wilkerson and Bellini (2006), the amount of many years of experience by school counselors adversely correlated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, recommending that individuals with fewer years of experience were more likely to see these effects of stress more frequently.

While Wilkerson and Bellini's (2006) review addressed many years of experience somewhat than biological time, other research does indeed address this very aspect, providing important insight into the distinctions between youthful and older individuals. For example, Chandraiah, Agrawal, Marimuthu, and Manoharan (2003) reported that managers between the ages of 25 and 35 experienced higher levels of job stress and less job satisfaction than have their more aged counterparts, ranging in age group from 36 to 55 years. Other research confirms a greater impact of stress after younger individuals, in this case below the age of 25, than upon workers over the age of 45 in relation to emotional exhaustion (Oyefeso, Clancy, & Farmer, 2008). Conversely, Vokic and Bogdanic (2007) reported that personnel over the age of 50 experienced better stress than their young counterparts in similar occupations. In addition, age also negatively correlated with occupational stress but positively with job satisfaction. In another study, concerning Catholic college teachers, analysts reported that era was a substantial predictor of occupational stress, with youthful workers experiencing increased degrees of stress than elderly staff (De Nobile & McCormack, 2007). Results from the Bristol Stress and Health at Work study, a review of 17, 000 arbitrary individuals, reported on personnel form a wide variety of occupations, rather than concentrating on one specific job. Investigators reported that individuals ranging in years from 33 to 50 experienced increased levels of stress over their more youthful and old counterparts (Smith, Brice, Collins, Mathews, & McNamara, 2000).

Not every analysis examining the influences of age upon occupational stress reported a significant relationship. Yahaya, Hashim, and Kim (2006) reported that age group did not impact the level of stress experienced by professors due to scholar misbehavior, workload, time, and learning resource difficulties, or social associations with coworkers. One possible reason behind this result may involve some factor natural in this type of occupation not present in other jobs.

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