Organization in Business
As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:
• basic theoretical approaches to the study of business organizations;
• patterns of the life cycle of the organization and the psychological characteristics of each stage;
• the current state of the leading scientific areas of organizational psychology and related disciplines;
• specific problems and results of fundamental and applied research in the field of organizational psychology;
be able to
• Identify psychological problems in business organizations;
• carry out a scientific analysis of the causes of their occurrence;
• Develop recommendations for their resolution;
• scientific professional terminology;
• methods of organizational and psychological diagnosis;
• Methods of organizational development.
Keywords: business organization, business organization, organizational psychology, psychologist in the organization, personality and organization, psychological problems of the organization.
Organization as a business tool
Entrepreneurial activity, like any other human activity, involves the use of a variety of tools that increase the amount of work done per unit of time. One of the most powerful tools of a businessman is the organization created by him as a peculiar device for the production (extraction) of profits. Therefore, in this chapter, we will not consider the organization in a broad sense, that is, not from the point of view of the general theory of organization, but we will focus our attention on the special type of organizations used in business.
Underlining once again a single target function for the type of organizations that will be discussed in the future - profit generation, - we agree to designate them as business organizations, or business organizations. Thus, we will distinguish between the so-called profit organizations (profit-profit) from non-profit organizations, which include political, public, cultural and other organizations. Further, using the word organization in the text, we mean the above definitions business and business .
What follows from this? First, there are clear limits to the portability of those properties of the organization, which will be discussed below, to their specific varieties. This circumstance will affect the understanding of both the organization itself, its goals, structure, processes, and levels of analysis of the organization and the criteria for assessing its effectiveness. Secondly, the focus of attention is transferred from the consideration of the organization as such to its role in the implementation of entrepreneurial activities, ie. profit. Thirdly, the psychological aspect of the organization's analysis will be to characterize the relations between people who are members of this organization, based on their key organizational position - owner, manager and performer. Thus, our central task is to identify and describe the activities of the business organization in its "human dimensions".
As you already know, the main criterion for determining the social role of a businessman is a simultaneous combination of ownership and the fact of management of his enterprise. This makes it easy to distinguish the actual businessmen among hired employees of any rank - from managers, highly qualified specialists to ordinary performers. Businessmen can be called only those people who invest their money and property in business, while taking responsibility for its development, those who daily risk their own fortune, their fate and the fate of others. The rest, even high-class specialists, in case of failure of the businessman risk their earnings, their workplace, but not as a matter of fact. Thus, it is necessary to emphasize the difference in the concepts of manager (with a small letter) as a universal profession of manager, manager, and Manager (with a capital letter) as a new role for the Businessman. Its main task now is to organize joint activities of people, and this, in turn, is possible only on the condition of delegating a number of its powers in selling business to other people. The Manager now requires new skills, including time management, distribution and coordination of work, interpersonal effectiveness, management of meetings, projects, organization of performance monitoring, ability to work with documents, and, finally, management of organizational changes.
The main psychological result of the transition of the businessman from the position of the Entrepreneur to the position of the Manager is the change of the locus of the attitude to his own business - from the internal locus to the external: "The entrepreneur works in his business, is inside him: the business of the Entrepreneur is inseparable from himself, it perishes, starting from the very moment when the entrepreneur for whatever reasons stops him from engaging. The manager starts working on above his business and gets a good result when a business begins to live an independent life, can be easily separated from it and transferred to another manager, for example, a professional Manager " (Emelyanov, Povarnitsyna, 1998). In other words, a businessman as a business owner must survive (i.e., transfer, i.e., cope) the problem of alienation from himself, from his personality of some part of it. To a certain extent, one can talk about the possibility of losing the source of the meanings of one's own vital activity. And, nevertheless, a businessman should make his business as independent as possible from his own predilections and build it not for himself, but in accordance with the objective requirements of the situation in which his organization is located.
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