• Basic concepts, categories and tools for managing the development of the organization;
• psychological phenomena associated with individual human behavior and relevant to his life in the organization.
• diagnose and solve problems and tasks of organizational development, determined by psychological factors;
• Analyze the external and internal environment of the organization as a source of organizational and psychological problems.
• the conceptual apparatus in the field of organizational development;
• organizational and psychological methods of implementation and psychological support of innovations in the organization;
• Working with groups and teams;
• Methods of psychological support of organizational development programs;
• the basics of organizational counseling.
Changes in the organization and the notion of organizational development
Modern organizations have to work in a rapidly changing environment. Therefore, one of the most important needs for an organization is the ability to manage change. This is important for people working in the organization to maintain efficiency and relevance. The problem of change management in organizations is today one of the priorities in several sciences - economics, political science, sociology and psychology. Practitioners, managers, first of all resort to knowledge related to the nature of life of the organization, its adaptation to economic and social conditions. Requesting practice in the search for effective methods of company management refers to the development of the organization as one of the real resources of competitiveness and long-term existence in the production market and in the personnel market. Attraction of psychologists as organizational consultants allows to improve the quality of support of dynamic organization processes.
An enterprise is required to advise on the development of the organization in several cases. The organizational tasks of development are formulated by the head of the enterprise or its owner in the language of technical or economic tasks. The most typical are:
- a sense of crisis that is not reducible to any particular aspect of the organization's activities (sales, logistics, personnel skills, marketing, etc.), sometimes this condition is defined as a systemic crisis;
- the desire of business owners to implement systematic development in accordance with certain strategic goals based on the optimal organizational configuration (structure) of their business;
- the desire of business owners to withdraw from the management of operational activities of the organization or redistribute the existing structure of the division of powers between owners and hired managers;
- preparation of business for merger or sale.
The economic approach to organizational development as to the ordering of production and management processes (ie, in fact, the design and optimization of business processes) is not fully satisfied, since it does not have mechanisms for implementing organizational changes. The socio-psychological approach to understanding organizational development is seen as a long-term work to improve problem-solving processes. This is possible through the renewal of the organization through more effective joint regulation of the cultural postulates of the organization.
One of the most important factors of the company's efficiency is the activity of the personnel. Any changes related to people are always more complex than replacing equipment or financial investments. The tasks of managing change in an organization are related to the activities of personnel that are either a participant, or initiator of changes, or their purpose.
The organization as a subject of activity has the necessary characteristic - variability, ability to change. Change is embedded in the nature of any acting entity, and therefore, inherent in the organization operating in its market of goods or services. At the same time, the change, depending on the pace, dynamics, strength and intensity, can be evolutionary and revolutionary. Accordingly, the goal of changing the organization is to promote survival, growth and development.On the basis of that, life in general and the life of the organization in particular take place under conditions of change, the localization of the change outside or inside the organization, and their origin can be intentional, planned or random, resulting from the nature of things, therefore, dynamic. People, employees of organizations try to manage either internal or external changes that have a planned or accidental character. Therefore, there are probably 4 classes of changes (Table 3.1).
Four Change Classes
For example, quadrant A - internal and planned changes. This can be the introduction of a new state policy and system. Managing a planned change that has matured within the organization or imposed from the outside, involves managing the change processes. At the same time, the management of dynamic changes is more related to the nature of the organizational culture and style.
Recognizing environmental determinism leads to the idea that organizations are subject to the demands of the outside world, and "success" organization is associated with the ability to meet the needs of the outside world. For change management, it is important to understand the impact of factors. From the point of view of reaction to changes in the external environment, the internal factors of organizational changes play a special role. External factors can be characterized as follows:
- changes in the social structure of society, norms and habits;
- technological changes in the industry and technology in general;
- economic - rating of interests, features of demand for a product or service, indicators of the personnel market;
- political interests, legislation, relations between parties.
Within an organization are processes that are not always directly related to external factors. These forces can reinforce or weaken the influence of external factors. Internal factors:
- key employees
- the intensity of labor, morality, a sense of confidence;
- group relations, communications;
- Individual relations, satisfaction with them.
Based on an understanding of the importance of external and internal factors, it becomes necessary to monitor their impact on the organization, and change management becomes the activity of managers to create a balance of external adaptation and internal integration.
The planned change in organization and organizational development are interrelated. In practical terms, organizational development is a way of managing an organization or a program of organizational development. In the theory and practice of organizational development, it is not so much the specific changes in the organization that are important as the creation of a special form of organization capable of independent change management. Managing the natural development of an organization that has internal and external sources of both planned and dynamic changes.
At its core organizational development is a general concept, which includes a number of methods and approaches designed to improve the efficiency of the organization. Common to approaches and methods is the transformation of the organization and the learning system, and the transformation of effective organizational learning into a method of change management.Organizational development is the systematic and long-term application of scientific knowledge about behavior as a means of improving the effectiveness of the organization in terms of its ability to adapt its goals, structure, style of work to change.
Organizational development becomes a style of management based on humanistic values. The theory of organizational development has its own history, formed on the basis of an analysis of effective practice and the creation of theoretical approaches. Among them, a special place is occupied by team development, which is both an approach to development and a method of development. The basis for understanding the theory of change and development of the organization lie the work of M. Woodcock and D. Francis. Organizational design is based on the need for a single work in the management of the "technical" and social systems in the organization. Of particular importance are the work in the direction of studying the style of management and leadership.
Organizational development is an impact that is carried out for the entire organization, managed from above, in order to improve the effectiveness of the organization through planned interventions in the organization's processes, using scientific knowledge. In fact, organizational development is a planned system of changes in the organization.
The following characteristics of the concept of organizational development are formulated:
- Focus on formal organization;
- ensuring the balance of individual and organizational needs and objectives;
- concentration of attention on social interaction;
- an organizational development specialist does not need to offer ready-made solutions to the administration, but he must help her develop the ability to solve such problems and help create an ideal organization;
- adapt the changed organization to the modification of the environment conditions;
- open communications and deep mutual trust of employees of the organization and consultants.
Organizational development is a combination of knowledge and practice, which increases the effectiveness of the organization and individual development. It should be considered an organization as a complex system consisting of other systems, each of which has its own attributes and varying degrees of coherence. Organizational development intervenes in these systems, but the essence is the inclusion of a new methodology in strategic planning, organizational design, leadership development, change management, management, training.
Currently, organizational development is supplemented by the following provisions:
- Human activity and organizational systems are interdependent;
- Individuals and organizations can mutually adapt;
- organizations that adapt to changes are more efficient;
- conflicts in organizational values are possible in the organization;
- some conflicts are natural and can be controlled;
- most conflicts are psychological;
- the needs of individuals and organizations are compatible so that they make it possible to conclude mutually beneficial agreements;
- there are no ideal technical and social processes, one should take into account the peculiarities of the environment;
- Employees seek to improve themselves and the organization in order to achieve their goals;
- the organization creates favorable opportunities for growth and self-improvement of its members;
- the democratic participation of workers in the decision-making process improves both the decisions themselves and their implementation;
- Democratic participation helps individuals to mature psychologically;
- trusted employees do the job better and faster;
- open communication promotes self-awareness and self-esteem, trust between employees and commitment to the organization;
- the culture of the higher levels of management affects the organizational ability to change;
- Collaboration helps organizations achieve their goals better than coercion;
- for the identification and correction of organizational pathologies, the assistance of a professionally trained consultant, usually from outside, may be required;
- a change in organizational behavior entails new norms of relationships, values and skills, as well as knowledge;
- a change in organizational culture requires the active participation of members of the organization.
Organizational development is a complex strategy aimed at changing the beliefs, attitudes, values, culture and structure of an organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies, markets and problems.
If one assumes that the strategic goal of a modern organization can be defined as the creation and preservation of competitive advantages, then one of the main factors for successful survival of an organization in a competitive struggle is the ability to timely respond adequately to changes occurring in the external environment.
This ability is achieved in several ways, and one of them is the transformation of the organization into a learning organization. The key factor in the formation of the "learning" organization - the process of continuous organizational development. The symptomatology that confirms organizational development is diverse and includes mainly:
1) an application for technological leadership;
2) asset growth;
3) segment expansion;
4) involvement in large integrated industry structures;
5) development of human resources.
Organizational development is associated with economic and technological processes. In this case, it is necessary to take into account that technological leadership is resource-intensive and with "compression" technological cycle, the organization is deprived of the opportunity to recoup investment in technological productivity. The growth of assets is fraught with a mismatch between the control and managed subsystems. Expansion of the segment leads to loss of predictability of consumer behavior, and the formation of integrated structures - to the loss of organizational uniqueness. Only the development of the human resource has no permanent negative effects and best ensures the development of the organization as a whole. That is why organizational development basically involves the development of a human resource.
The key factor in the formation of a learning organization is the process of continuous organizational development. The trainee can be called an organization that creates the conditions for training and development of all employees, and, being in the process of constant self-improvement, thus changes the world around it.Creating an internal environment in which individual, group and organizational development takes place is a complex process that requires a systematic approach, the involvement of line managers, the support of higher management, the use of modern innovative techniques and technologies.
Organizational development is interesting to consider on the basis of a competence approach. To create sustainable competitive advantages, constant, continuous training and development of employees is necessary, which, being implemented in interaction, provides development at the group and organizational level, through the creation, exchange and application of knowledge and skills that are not simply claimed by the external environment but which form it.
Active system implementation of changes on the levels organization & quot ;, group & quot ;, individuality gives the organizational structure a "mature" status. Structural maturity is a certain level of development of the structure, in which the entire system of structural and functional interaction with the effect of the greatest synergy is simultaneously updated. It's not just about structural flexibility - the variability of the structure, due to the mobility of the relationships between the structural units. This property is adaptive - the system has the ability to adapt to changes in the external environment. A mature structure - opportunities for initiating change, self-development, creating key competencies.
One of the goals of the organization's development system is the actualization of the set of interactions at different levels: personality - personality, personality - organization - the goal of the organization's development system. It is important to understand that education is the basis of development, since development involves not just quantitative but qualitative changes, a transition to a different level. Training can be conducted forcibly. Development requires internal motivation of employees. If an organizational culture is created that fosters employee development, an incentive system that supports the acquisition and exchange of knowledge, then the commitment of employees, their involvement in the organization's activities and the division of its goals will increase. Only in this way can the strategy of the organization be realized. Without the system of career planning, creation of the personnel reserve and other elements of the development function, effective implementation of structural and functional interaction, creation of key competencies and conformity with the properties of the learning organization are impossible.
The development function can be defined as providing a stable competitive advantage and structural maturity of the organization through the realization of the whole set of structural and functional interactions. Since development occurs in interaction, it is necessary to consider the implementation of various development methods in the system of organizational interactions.
The methods of development that are realized in the process of interaction within the group are the most effective and have the greatest impact on the development of personnel and organizations. The acquisition of knowledge is closely related to their application in practice and carries with it real changes in activity.
The interaction between the employee and the organization allows you to implement methods that require one-time or irregular interactions between employees of the organization.
Finally, methods that affect partnership interaction (training of leaders of an organization) are self-learning or knowledge transferred by external specialists. The future of the development function depends to a large extent on how much the value that the leaders bring can be accurately assessed and measured.
If we consider a learning organization as a place where people constantly expand their opportunities to create the results they really want, in which new large-scale ways of thinking are cultivated, in which people constantly learn how to learn together, it is possible to single out five signs of such an organization.
1. Personal skill. This discipline encourages people to constantly clarify for themselves what is important to them, i.e. its own concept. At the same time, they must constantly reassess how things are going now, that is, current situation. The tension between the concept and reality generates energy. This energy encourages personal growth.
2. Creating a shared vision. This discipline is centered on common goals, not those that are imputed. It allows you to discover the skills necessary for groups or organizations to achieve the desired future. The general concept encourages sincere interest, not stupid complacency.
3. Team training. This is the discipline of teamwork. The links through the use of dialogue and a well-structured discussion. They think collectively. The whole becomes greater than the sum of the parts.
4. Cognitive models. People without knowing themselves are endowed with hidden beliefs and beliefs that actively influence thinking. These beliefs are very powerful and may prevent further learning. Extracting them into light and examination creates a space for change.
5. System thinking. This is the fifth discipline that unites all the previous ones. It is the main axis of knowledge and a set of tools that allow people to see patterns in complex systems.
In the activities of the manager in a changing organization, traditional managerial functions are modified, new ones appear - support and instability increase, cultivation of variability, flexibility, unpredictable changes. This approach is more in line with the realities of modern times, which exist in an ever-changing and poorly predictable environment. The manager puts new tasks, such as the development of the ability to change, based on the ability to notice, the possibility of change and development, readiness for internal change.
Organizations striving for organizational growth must take into account the characteristics of the environment and adapt to the conditions, drawing from the experience intellectual and emotional lessons. This, in fact, the dynamic changes.
The mechanism of targeted management influence on the organization consists of goal-setting and goal-realization, the unity of which is the basis of the effectiveness of social management. The interesting idea is that the absence of some order does not mean uncontrollability. The control mechanism is based on the interaction of spontaneous regulators (traditions, norms, customs). In the nature of the enterprise there is a social automatism inherent in the organizational order created and created by the administrative apparatus (products of managerial work - modes, tasks, documents, etc.). The mechanism of social management is not limited only to the target management impact, but includes the processes of organization and self-organization. Integration of management means the mobilization of internal sources of organizational energy of a managed object, the use of positive self-organization opportunities, which allows you to "save" on purposeful influence from the outside. There are two tendencies in the management: the increase of efficiency through detailing, the complication of target management and through the development of self-organization.
The development of an organization is determined by organizational values. Three general values, which are interrelated - controllability, clientele and innovation - influence the priorities, determining both methods and content.
Bearers of values are the founders of the organization (founders), as well as company managers, hired managers. Existing values are realized in management and in general in the ways of managing the organization and personnel.
Manageability as a value has found its manifestation in the consistency of goals and actions with respect to execution. Setting the objectives of the development of the organization as a whole and the staff is consistent with the vision of the head of an effective employee, which specifies such leading characteristics as: diligence, discipline, loyalty.
The value of an organization innovation is the direction to change. It is based on the organization's ability to generate innovations and implement innovations (manifests itself through openness to new technologies and contacts, proactive management). Innovation forms are realized in different planes - production technologies (introduction of a new technological line, development of new machine tools), changes in the organizational structure. All innovations are based on training and assume the development of a human resource.
Clientiness - the value of the organization's compliance with the needs of the market. Enterprises, aimed at identifying and satisfying the needs of the consumer, consider clientele one of the basic values and declare it as the basis and purpose of intra-firm changes. Forms and content of organizational behavior, reactions to external changes in relation to the organization are mediated by the demand for the product and regulate the relationship with the client.
Evaluation of the basic values of the organization finds the opportunity to develop and improve the activities of the enterprise. The challenges of the external environment put before the organization new tasks related to its development. At a certain stage in the development of the organization or during a crisis, the enterprise faces challenges that are associated with the recognition of values, and sometimes the adjustment. For example, an enterprise that has a stable place in the market of production of goods and a habitual place in the personnel market faces a change in demand or a change in the personnel market in the region. Then the search for ways of organizational change leads to the question of understanding the values of the organization, leadership, and staff. If there is a discrepancy between the existing and necessary management methods, the values are revised.
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