ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SYSTEM OF PSYCHOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE...

ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SYSTEM OF PSYCHOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE

Integrated goal

Know :

• Basic concepts of organizational psychology;

• individual stages of formation of views on the person as an employee of the organization;

• criteria for determining organizational and psychological problems and tasks.

Know :

• Analyze the external and internal environment of the organization, as a source of organizational psychological problems;

• Identify the specifics of a person's mental functioning in an organization.

Own :

• the conceptual apparatus in the field of organizational psychology;

• methods and methods of distribution of powers and responsibilities in solving organizational and psychological problems;

• the ethical norms of the work of an organizational psychologist.

Object, subject and tasks of organizational psychology

Throughout the history of mankind, people in order to achieve the goals and solve the tasks facing them were grouped together. If we were talking about groups engaged in labor activity, then in addition to the work itself, people also regulated relations among themselves, distributed workload, negotiated terms and content of the work, conflicted and argued, understood or did not understand each other. And if they did their job purposefully, then learning the experience that would allow them to regulate the interaction of people and groups was spontaneous. The situation changed at the beginning of the 20th century, when psychology was already recognized as a science and active introduction of scientific psychological knowledge into human life began.

A significant part of their lives people spend in their workplace. The time of life is largely the time given to the work, so psychological knowledge proved to be extremely demanded in industry and trade, and then in the system of public administration and in any other sphere where people united in formalized social systems - organizations. The request for practice made psychologists first combine all the accumulated knowledge useful to owners, managers, employees of organizations under the general title "organizational psychology", and then begin a focused search for this knowledge.

In organizational psychology, the practical significance of scientific psychological knowledge is most clearly reflected. Organizational psychology is a branch of psychology that studies the psychological aspects of the behavior and activities of people and groups in the organization, as well as the psychological characteristics of the organization itself, manifested in its organizational culture, image and behavior in the external environment.

To determine the subject of organizational psychology, it is necessary to proceed from the definition of the subject of psychology. To define the subject of science, one must clearly distinguish between the concepts subject and object science. The object of science - these are the real phenomena that this science is exploring. The subject of science is that key concept around which the entire conceptual apparatus of science is built.

The object of organizational psychology can be divided into three levels of analysis - micro-, meta- and macro-levels. At the micro level, a person who is involved in organizational relationships is studied, at the meta-level - groups that unite people within the organization, and at the macro level - organization as a system, of which people and groups are a part. In the generalized form, the activity of a person, a group, an organization, manifested both in the internal environment of the organization, within the boundaries of its space, and in the external environment when the organization interacts with clients, the public, the state and other persons interested in its work .

The above-mentioned spheres of interest of organizational psychology are so voluminous that they determine its links not only with other areas of psychological knowledge, but also with related sciences and areas of practice demanded by the organization for successful functioning. The complexity of man as an object of research, the complexity and dynamic nature of the internal and external environment of the organization, the ambiguity, and sometimes the paradoxical manifestation and influence of the individual psychological and socio-psychological characteristics of man and group on organizational processes, make the subject of organizational psychology a wide range of phenomena that link it with other branches of psychological science: social psychology, labor psychology, personality psychology, developmental psychology, differential psychology general psychology, pedagogical psychology. Thus, the subject of organizational psychology is the most diverse psychological aspects and phenomena of the behavior of people and groups in the organization, and the determinants of their factors.

The main tasks of organizational psychology are dictated by questions that arise both from owners and managers of organizations, and people performing executive functions. Such questions, as a rule, begin with the words why, what to do, how to do, why to do it. These questions concern the person's own behavior, the behavior of his colleagues, managers, subordinates and the behavior of those persons in whom the organization is interested (consumers, customers, customers, contractors). Therefore, organizational psychology solves such a problem as studying subjects of organizational behavior and developing psychologically sound technologies for solving organizational problems related to the "human factor" and the introduction of these technologies into organizational reality. The subtasks that result from this list dictate what the organizational psychologist should do. The essence of them is as follows.

1. Diagnose organizational problems in terms of psychological knowledge.

2. Carry out research that allows us to specify specific organizational variables, identify causal relationships between the behavior of organizational actors and the effectiveness of the organization.

3. Develop recommendations for optimizing behavior for participants in the organizational process.

4. Implement these recommendations in the organizational environment, taking into account the possible resistance of employees and managers of such an intervention.

Solving the problems of organizational psychology is always aimed at increasing the effectiveness of organizational activities by using psychological phenomena associated with the personality, the group, their activities, behavior, attitudes and awareness. It is a mistake to think that an organizational psychologist, for the effective functioning of an organization, forgets about a particular person and considers it only as an instrument similar to tools such as a machine tool or a computer. The organizational psychologist, like no one else, realizes the dependence of organizational efficiency on the well-being and psychological comfort of people included in the organization, understands the certain inconsistency and paradoxical behavior of a person and offers such variants of technologies that will strategically lead to a gain and organization and a person. A certain dictate of the organization in relation to man is inevitable. If the organization does not provide its own self-preservation (for example, by reducing the number of employees), then it will not be able to offer anything to the person who needs it in the future.

Organizational psychology allows the heads of organizations and production departments to correctly understand the psychological effects and reactions of personnel to the most diverse manifestations of the organizational environment and thereby ensure the possibility of timely and adequate forecasting, response, development and implementation of the strategy and tactics of managerial influences that have a significant impact on efficiency the work of the staff and the organization as a whole. It is important to use this knowledge in a complex, not losing sight of the organizational and psychological phenomena that manifest themselves at the individual level of employees, as well as in the group, relating to production collectives, and organizational, affecting not only the organization itself, but also its external environment. >

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