• Basic concepts and categories of organizational psychology;
• The competence and the main directions of the psychologist's activity in the organization.
• Identify psychological problems in the analysis of specific organizational situations, suggest ways of addressing the organizational structure and objectives of the organization that are relevant to the organizational structure and objectives
• analyze the external and internal environment of the organization, as a source of organizational and psychological problems;
• Identify the specifics of a person's mental functioning in an organization.
• the conceptual apparatus in the field of organizational psychology;
• modern methods of collecting, processing, analyzing, interpreting organizational-psychological information, conditioned by the specifics of the organizational structure;
• technology analysis of socio-psychological processes in the organization, methods of managing group and team work.
Concept and criteria for determining an organization
The site for the work of an organizational psychologist is an organization. In order to understand what issues psychologists solve on this site, it is necessary to answer the question, what is an organization. Reply to it, despite the fact that we often use this term in our speech, it is not easy. Sociologists, psychologists, experts in the field of organization and management differently define this category.
The scientific study of organizations begins in the last quarter of the 19th century. The first attempt to give a scientific explanation of the essence of the organization was based on the idea of expediency. The organization was treated as an expedient arrangement of parts of the whole, an expedient link between the parts as a whole, having a definite purpose. The organization was defined as a social tool for achieving goals.
Already at the beginning of the XX century. A. Bogdanov understood the organization as such a whole, which is not reduced to a simple arithmetic sum of its constituent elements, as a whole that is more or less than the sum of its parts. He was the first to formulate the idea of organizing as some unity of human activities and resistance. C. Barnard proposed his formulation, which is still shared by many specialists today. He defined the organization as a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more people. In other words, according to Barnard, when people come together and formally decide to combine their efforts to achieve a common goal, they create an organization.
Today, the concept of organization is used in three main senses.
1. An organization is a social community that unites a certain set of individuals to achieve a common goal that operates on the basis of certain procedures and rules (factory, store, school as an organization).
2. An organization is a kind of human activity whose goal is to achieve orderliness, coherence of parts of the whole (for example, a professional in organizing work with youth).
Organization as a process means that an organization is a complex of managerial actions aimed at the formation of elements of an organization, on the combination of elements and on the improvement of these links. What are these elements: resources (material, labor, financial).
3. Organization is the degree of internal orderliness, coordination, coherence of parts of the whole (for example, the organization of the business process).
The object of organizational psychology is an organization understood as a social community. The importance of awareness by managers, psychologists, economists of how modern organizations are organized, by what laws they develop and function, what principles are at the heart of building organizations led to the fact that since the beginning of the 20th century, The area of knowledge, which was called the "Organization Theory", was distinguished. She studies the methods of creating an organization, identifies the conditions necessary for its development, the factors that influence the process of creating an organization, studies the laws of the organization's functioning.
Define the most important characteristics of an organization.
1. Unification and coordination of people's activities. An organization is a social community that is in a purposeful interaction with the external environment. Consideration of the organization as a social community allows not only to understand the nature and nature of this social education, but also emphasizes the fact that the interaction of people within it is the main characteristic. People unite in their organizations their resources, physical and intellectual forces, while receiving the results of combining and coordinating the knowledge and work of a huge number of people. This is what allows them to achieve outstanding results, not achievable for singles, even the most talented and gifted.
2. Overall goal, or goal. Having a common goal is an indispensable prerequisite for uniting the efforts of people and their resources in organizations. It, this common goal, is formed on the basis of the common needs and interests of people who create the organization and work in it. The organization is a purposeful social community. It is created to achieve the goals that determine the main directions of its activities, its structure, etc.
3. Organizational structure. In accordance with the organization's goals, people deliberately design its structure, determining the nature and ways of connecting individual elements to a certain integrity. Depending on the organization's goals, its age, technology, state and dynamics of the external environment, the organizational structure takes on various forms. It can be hierarchical, matrix, entrepreneurial, mixed.
4. Specialization and division of labor. The fragmentation of complex production processes, operations and tasks into components that involve the specialization of human labor, helps to use organizational resources with greater efficiency. The effectiveness of the division of labor in the organization was noticed in the XVIII century. A. Smith.
5. Organizational power. The implementation of a common task by the efforts of even a small group of people requires the transfer of power to one of its members, who would be responsible for ensuring that the goals are implemented effectively and efficiently . Organizational power is the right of a leader to direct the activities of his subordinates. Without a strong and effective organizational authority, successful coordination of the activities of different people is impossible.
6. Organizational culture. Each organization has a certain system of traditions, beliefs, values, symbols, rituals, myths, norms of communication between people, etc. This is what is commonly called organizational culture. She gives her personality, her "face"; and acts as a spiritual integrator of people working together, in a certain social community. It also facilitates the streamlining of their activities.
7. Organizational boundaries. These are various kinds of material and non-material "limiters" that fix the isolation of this organization with respect to other objects, its external environment. Such a border may be an ordinary fence around the organization or a system of procedures and rules, fixed in certain normative documents: the charter, program, internal regulations, job descriptions, etc.
The modern view of the organization is related to understanding it as an open system. This approach is based on the basic ideas of the general theory of systems. The term system comes from the Greek word systema, which means an organized, orderly relationship between the components. In the most general sense, the system is a set of internally interconnected parts. In this case, the whole is not reducible to the simple arithmetic sum of its constituent elements. An organizational system is a certain set of interconnected parts of an organization that forms a kind of integrity.
To understand and design enterprise processes, it is very important to analyze the environment in which the organization exists, to which it adapts and which it can modify. An organization can be analyzed on the basis of different approaches or paradigms. In one case, organizations are understood as systems that respond quickly, flexibly, and adequately to any changes in operating conditions and rules of the game. In another case, the organization freely chooses and constructs goals, methods of activity, its forms, its future, etc. with the help of their owners and managers.
The organization's goals, often referred to as corporate goals, differ from the strategic setting in that they are much more specific in content and are often quoted in value terms. These may include the desired levels of revenue or profits, growth rates, dividends or the estimated value of shares. However, there may also be non-financial parameters, such as staff welfare. The organization's tasks have traditionally been considered as a formal expression of the expectations of the shareholders. However, they can also represent the expectations of other stakeholders in the organization (for example, employees, buyers, suppliers, etc.). The organization's tasks are usually formulated by senior members of the board or by the chairman, or the executive director.
Knowledge of the theory of organization is necessary for the manager, as he will give him a systemic view of the management object. That is, if the theory of management answers the question "How to manage?", The organization theory answers the question "What to manage?".
Organization as an object of management is of special importance, since the organization is the main link in the socio-economic system of the country (it is in the organization that various types of products and services are created). The state of the organization (the quality of its functioning) determines the state of its branches and the entire state. That is, if there is no organization as an object, then there is no industry as an object and territory as an object. It is in organizations that the process of manufacturing a product or service is being carried out, through organization as a tool, both the economic and social tasks of society are being addressed.
The importance of the theory of organization as a field of knowledge increases, because the complexity of economic activity increases, the number of enterprises increases, their connections expand, competition grows, and the requirements for organization on the part of stakeholders increase.
In any country there is a huge number of different types of organizations. All this diversity forms a system in which groups of homogeneous but some kind of organizations (clusters) stand out, for the convenience of studying the characteristics of each type of organization, the following groups stand out.
1. According to the content of the goals, the nature of the target orientation - social and economic organizations. The main goal of the functioning of economic organizations is to obtain maximum profit. Economic organizations are different in that they produce the bulk of products and services. The goals of social organizations are the satisfaction of social needs. In social organizations, profit can also be created, but this goal is not the main one.
2. By form of ownership - state, municipal, private, mixed. State, municipal, private ownership is used for the organization of economic and social organizations, and mixed - for economic.
The state form of ownership - a feature of social organization is manifested in the fact that the share of the subjects of state and municipal enterprises is very high in the structure of the social organization. Example: health care or education is implemented mainly in public institutions, although there are private clinics or schools.
As a part of a sub-group of private organizations, different species, subspecies, varieties are distinguished, mainly on an organizational basis, ie:
- on the mechanism of creating these enterprises;
- the formation of the collective;
- the way the guide is created;
- the nature of the team's participation in the management of the organization.
As part of this subgroup, the main type of economic organizations (typical for all countries) are joint-stock companies, because this form allows to concentrate, accumulate significant financial assets in a short period of time through the repurchase of shares and in the subsequent period of functioning of organizations - this is very flexible and a stable form of organization.
Features of joint-stock companies:
- the authorized capital is formed through the issue of shares;
- the supreme management body - the general meeting of shareholders. In addition, an executive body is created, i. the body that directly forms the management body (continuously) - the board of directors.
State and municipal organizations are also present in any country. However, their share may vary.
Despite the differences existing in organizations, any modern organization is an open socio-technical system. And it is this feature that determines the mission, policy, requirements for managers and staff.
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