Paradoxicality of human psychology - Methodological...

The paradoxical nature of human psychology

The paradoxical nature of human psychology makes it difficult to predict the object of knowledge. Nevertheless, it is the paradoxical nature of human psychology should become the main subject of scientific and psychological cognition in the near and distant future. This will require the development of new research procedures and methods, as well as a rethinking of the entire methodology of psychological cognition of the person, formed when introducing the experimental method into psychological research on the principles of physical experiment.

The paradoxical nature of human psychology stems from the unity of the contradictions between the body and the soul, the material and the ideal, the body and the psyche, nervous and mental activity, affective and gnostic, mental reflection and psychological reflection and many others. In the end, all of them manifest themselves in the contradictory unity of being and consciousness.

Within the limits of a single person, all these contradictions are represented by its properties as an object of nature and subject of mental activity with the function of consciousness, which becomes the source of multiple paradoxes of people's behavior in joint life activity. Psychological science and the practice of life are constantly confronted with paradoxes of consciousness in which the subjective activity of a person directs his behavior and activities contrary to the natural laws of life of the body. In the subject-object constructs of a person's mental activity, the contradictory relations of the psyche and reality with which the person interacts are presented. These contradictions are overcome by a person through paradoxical solutions that perform the tasks of adaptation to the new conditions of being. However, consciousness does not always find the right solution, and this concludes another paradox of the psychology of man as a phenomenon and psychology as a science.

In the antinomy of the soul and body, the basic paradox of man as a rational being is enclosed. This paradox is a source of world outlook experiences of a person, in which the comprehension of the problems of life and death of human existence takes place. These problems stem from the activity of the person's self-awareness (soul), which results in ordinary and scientific ideas of the person about himself, the meaning of life, death and possible immortality. The mortality of the body is certainly an established fact. It has boundaries like any physical object, its life is limited in space and time as in all material objects. The soul as an ideal education tends to infinity and immortality, looking for imperishable forms of existence. But then the soul must have forms of existence independent of the body. How can all this be combined in one living person?

According to Bekhterev, a person attains immortality through his contribution to the spiritual culture through communication, which connects all generations who lived on Earth. You can add that each person puts in the information space part of his knowledge, his small and large discoveries, serving as an adaptation potential for all mankind. This potential is formalized as knowledge about nature, space, man and society. In the process of knowledge and communication the soul and body form a unity for the lifetime of a particular person. After the death of a person, the soul and body part. Cognition and communication grant the soul immortality, because they ensure the materialization of the ideal potential of man's mental organization in the information space. In knowledge and fellowship, man finds the fullest satisfaction of spiritual claims.

The key contradiction between the life of the soul and the body is their interference , which suggests a rather complex balance of the determining properties of the body and psychic organization of a person. It is about this contradiction that various directions of psychological science constantly stumble.

In the psychophysiological paradigm, the antinomy of the soul and body was reduced to the study of neuropsychic activity with the predominant influence of the nervous system. As a result, both man and his soul disappeared from this direction. At the same time, the unidirectional determination of mental activity by the properties of the nervous system prevailed. Modern psychophysiology, overcoming its shortcomings, expands the subject area of ​​psychological cognition to the antinomy of the body and psyche, recognizing the counter influence of the psyche on the body. However, even in this relation, the psyche still does not have a subject of its own activity, in place of which the organism remains, and not a person endowed with the soul as an instance of self-consciousness and the ability to consciously control behavior and activity.

Psychophysical paradigm stems from the antinomy of the subject-object relationship, the essence of which was the subjectivity of the person's response to the physical effects of objects of mental reflection. Subjectivity has manifested itself in a psychophysical experiment as differences in the mental image with the physical configuration of objects of perception. This paradox has undermined confidence in the reliability of the experimental method in psychological research from the point of view of the problem of the expected adequacy of mental reflection. The subject in this paradigm was treated as a mechanical device with pre-determined response results. It turned out that everything is not so. Wundt, one of the few scientists of this and later time, tried to explain this paradox of subjectivity with past experience ( apperception ) of the subjects formed in the cultural traditions of the life of communities of a particular people . But this was not taken into account in the subject-object antinomy, until a person appeared on the site of the object of psychological cognition. This was fixed in the methodology of a new period in the development of psychological science in the formula of subject-subject relations, which gave rise to a new paradigm of psychological cognition.

In the paradigm of psychological cognition of a person, these and similar contradictions should be given primary attention as the initial features of human psychology. In this connection, attention should be paid to the peculiarities of the manifestation ambivalence of an emotional response to any stimulus, object, another person. Emotionality

refers to the inner world of man and includes a subjective relationship to the object of interaction, which can change under the pressure of dominant motives. A person is constantly in a situation of emotionally tense choice between want and pins & quot ;. The choice inevitably ends either in acceptance or rejection of the object of interaction. This or that answer is the result of an integral synthesis of the affective, gnostic, motivational and axiological (evaluative) components of a person's mental and psychological activity, as revealed in so-called social perception.

Ambivalence indicates the coexistence of positive and negative emotions as a starting state for the psychological activity of the subject of mental reflection. The primary emotion in this process is spontaneous and unconscious. It emerges as a sensual top, obscure by origin of its valence. The object initially either like or does not like, which is not clear without connecting the analytic function of consciousness associated with the axiological component of the subject's psychological activity.

The sign of emotion as a relationship depends on a presentiment of the utility of the object and its correspondence to the aesthetic standards, assimilated in the perceptual experience of man. This indicates the possibility of changing the sign of the valence of the primary emotion. Such paradoxes accompany the dynamics of a person's psychological activity in the processes of mental reflection.

Psychological pressure on the transformation of emotions is strengthened along with the evaluation function of consciousness. The need to evaluate the object of interaction from the point of view of its usefulness or uselessness brings the process of mental activity to such depths of psychological experience in which it becomes difficult to establish a balance in the ambivalent structure of feelings. Evaluation in the psychological cognition of a person ends with the definition of his psychological qualities, the ambivalence of which is indicated by the corresponding antinomies. For example, "good - evil", "responsible - irresponsible", "merciful - aggressive" and many others.

Emotional ambivalence of mental reaction and psychological reflection is a source of subjectivity of mental and psychological activity, which should be regarded as a specific property of the subject of psychological cognition of a person. In the subjectivity of a person's psychological activity, his psychological qualities, characterizing the personality as an individuality, are concluded. Of course, subjectivity as a quality of human psychology is manifested in the ideal and material forms of the objectified results of psychological and subject-practical activity.

In the subject-subject paradigm, the most complete manifestation of the paradoxes of psychological cognition is possible. The starting point of all the paradoxes in this formula is that man is at the same time a subject and an object of psychological cognition and social interaction. Therefore, it is she who needs the methodological comprehension as soon as possible. This formula encourages to correlate in the psychological cognition of the inner world a person with verbal expressions of this world and But between these three stages of self-realization, a paradoxical relationship of inconsistency and mismatch develops. For example, "wanted, as best - it turned out as always", or "thought one thing, said another, did a third". Each of these stages of the life of the human spirit forms peculiar psychological realities in which the potentials of the mental organization of man and human relations are objectified.

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