Periodization of ontogeny in ungulates
The periods of development we have considered are typical of immature mammals, and primarily for predators of the canine family. With greater or lesser differences, we find the same periods of formation in other mammals. For example, in ungulates, the newborn period lasts only two to three hours. From hoofed animals, this is the longest period for a camel: camels are born very weak, and the period of newborns is sometimes stretched to two or three days. The period of socialization begins with camels at the age of one or two weeks, when the kid actively plays with his comrades. The juvenile period, which takes place during puberty, in ungulates continues approximately from two months to a year. At one-year-old age, most of the cubs leave the mother, but camels and foals remain with her for another year, or even two. The period of adolescence ends in ungulates at the beginning of reproduction, which occurs in females usually in a year and a half or two, and in males a year later. The period of youth is especially prolonged for a long time in males, which older members of the herd do not admit to females. Ego is characteristic of mountain rams, horses, antelopes and other animals. The maturity period ends in different ungulates in about 8-10 years, and in horses and camels it stretches to 15-17 years. Then comes old age.
Congenital and acquired in behavior
In analyzing any manifestation of mental activity, the question of innate and acquired components of behavior constantly arises. What does an individual inherit from previous generations in a genetically fixed innate form and what should she learn in order to acquire an individual experience?
In the middle of the last century, psychologists were vigorously discussing the problem of congenital and acquired in behavior, as well as the issue of priority of the first or second. At present, it has been convincingly shown that both components are interdependent and always present in behavioral reactions. At the same time, it is not always possible to determine the relative share of congenital and acquired elements in a behavioral act. Thus, on the whole, the issue of priorities from the agenda has been removed. Nevertheless, echoes of historical discussions are sometimes found in the pages of special articles, and in textbooks. This question is also present in the requirements to the mandatory minimum content on zoopsychology and comparative psychology of the State educational standard. In this regard, we consider it necessary to remind readers once again of the interaction of congenital and acquired elements in the formation of behavior in ontogeny.
Each newly born baby already has a certain set of innate reactions, which allows him to respond to the environment immediately after birth, which is especially important for the matured animals. These behavioral acts are carried out in the presence of certain stimuli of the external environment - releasers , or key stimuli. The congenital response to the key stimulus KE Fabry called congenital recognition. For example, cubs born blind are guided in the space on the first day after birth in tactile stimuli and thus find a source of food - mother's nipples. For each slight touch, they react by moving toward the stimulus: when the front end irritates, they move forward, when they touch the back or tail they turn back.
In the ungulates that are born sighted, the visual and auditory reception has the greatest significance for the appearance of the food reaction, although they also react to the common stimulus for all mammals - the touch of the face to the warm surface. A particularly strong stimulus for them is a darkening above the head, which causes a characteristic motor response, which consists in casting the head, sucking movements and saliva secretion. An innate reaction to a blackout over the head makes it possible to understand the whole sequence of behavior of a newborn in the first act of sucking in ungulates. Immediately after birth, the sheep-womb begins licking the lamb. In this case, after a while, she becomes above it. This causes a darkening over the head, the lamb casts its head and "finds" nipple. Thus, the first act of suckling in a matured animal is initiated and coordinated. In addition to the visual, tactile stimulation of the lateral surfaces of the trunk and the anal area of the lamb plays a large role. The mechanical irritation of these parts of the body also causes head tilt and a food reaction.
Similar reflex acts formed at the time of birth take place in many species of ungulates, the same reaction was observed in a newborn giraffe.
The birth and behavior of the mother and newborn demonstrate well a complex set of congenital behavioral responses. LM Baskin convincingly demonstrates this by the example of reindeer.
We follow the reindeer. We see, as one of the vazhenok showed hooves front legs of a deer. Mother, who had previously been grazing in the middle of the herd, is trying to retire, going to the edge of the herd. The first fights began. Olenukha then lies down, then gets up. Contractions are increasing. The head appeared. We hear the first cry of the baby, although he still makes up one whole with his mother. A few more minutes, and the calf falls on the snow. Since the time we noticed the legs, it took only half an hour.
The mother licking her baby. The amniotic fluid, which is smeared out, has a strong odor, very attractive to the mother. A neighboring deer, interested in the smell, reached for the deer, but his mother immediately attacked him with horns. So, the smell of the calf is the first "thread" that linked it to the mother.
Mother with a deer alone. Neighboring deer have already gone forward, Nothing threatens the baby, but the mother continually screams. Little does not answer her almost, so it seems that the inner woman needs to scream some inner need. After two hours she screams less and less, and finally stops. What is the meaning of this concert? We will understand this when we see in a few hours how the deer is confidently distinguishing the mother's voice from the voice of other deer. Between the mother and the deer, a sound connection was established.
... Watching the formation of the relationship of mother and deer, we were convinced that these two animals are united only by a set of innate reactions. There is no element of the mother's conscious participation in the fate of the deer. We took the baby in his arms. The mother looks directly at him two steps away, but does not know, runs around, sniffs the tracks. And the change is small, - the deer does not stand on the snow, but it was lifted upwards. A misfortune happened next to our experimental pair - a dead deer was born to a woman. We try to plant our deer to the adoptive mother - she willingly accepted it, licks it. If you make such an attempt with a woman who lost a deer six or more hours old, the experiment will be unsuccessful: Vazhenka well distinguishes the smell of her and another's baby. Observations show that this is due to the time of the first feeding. It is the smell of milk (the head of a deer is soiled with it) and the smell of feces help Vazhenka identify her "."
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