Philosophical sources - Psychoanalysis. T. 1. Freudianism and neo-Freudianism

Philosophical origins

Psychoanalysis is a specific philosophical direction. This means that in the history of philosophy, of course, there were ideas that anticipated the discoveries of Z. Freud. Let us cite even the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates. Many of his ideas are consonant with Freudianism. E. Fromm, a follower of Freud, in the work "The greatness and limitations of Freud's theory" notes that psychoanalysis is animated by a deep, hard-satiated human need for truth. Fromm turns to the great thinkers and religious figures who affirmed the unconditional priority of truth, its supremacy in the history and destiny of a particular person. In ancient Greece Socrates had opponents - sophists. This was the name of groups of ancient Greek thinkers of the first half of the 4th century. BC. Originally so called in classical Greece of thinkers and wise men. Thanks to their desire to win in the dispute of victory at any cost, they turned the discussion into a cunning and seeming wisdom. Meeting with the sophists, Socrates tried to prove that the truth does not fly like a roast pigeon into a gaping mouth, and for it, as for any good, it is necessary to fight.

For many centuries, philosophers and psychologists have glorified the mind. They did not doubt his power and indisputable supremacy. In the XVIII century. philosophers and psychologists have made an assumption: the mind is in general the predominant property of man, the greatest gift. Everything must be subjected to the judgment of the mind. Society, the state, the whole life of man must obey the standards of consciousness. The mind not only distinguishes a person from the natural kingdom, but allows to realize moral and spiritual values.

Thinkers of this century would consider blasphemous the very formulation of the question: what is the mind - a blessing or a curse? They believed that every person, no matter who he is, a king or a swineherd, is already able to know the greatness of the universe by his birth. There are no secrets that are beyond the mind. We need only reveal the enormous, inexhaustible possibilities of consciousness. It was a kind of cult of mind, which had a huge impact on philosophical and psychological thought.

The French philosopher René Descartes (1596-1650) believed that consciousness and psyche are one and the same. It was believed that beyond the limits of consciousness only the physiological activity of the brain can take place. However, another philosophical idea was maturing: not everything that happens in our soul, in our inner world, penetrates into the mind.

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