Philosophy and psychology in the works of ancient Greek and...

Philosophy and Psychology in the Works of Ancient Greek and Roman Philosophers

In Greek Antiquity, it is customary to distinguish three periods: early (before the 5th century BC), middle, "classical" (from V to 0 in.) and late Antiquity (from the creation to the collapse of the Roman Empire).

Location of historical thinkers on a chronological scale :

Location of historical figures of thinkers on a chronological scale

Early Greek Antiquity (before the 5th century BC)

"In all of history there is nothing more surprising and nothing more difficult to explain than the sudden emergence of civilization in Greece. What they have achieved in art and literature is known to everyone, but what they have done in a purely intellectual field is even more exceptional. They invented mathematics, science and philosophy; in the place of simple annals they first set history; they freely talked about the nature of the world and the purposes of life, not burdened with the fetters of some traditional orthodox teaching. What happened was so amazing that people until very recently were satisfied with amazement and mystical conversations about the Greek genius. "

Greco-Roman culture left a deep mark in modern European culture. As Jacob Burkhard (1818-1897), a Swiss historian, said: "We see through the eyes of the Greeks and speak with their speeches." Suffice it to recall the expressions that have become familiar: "Olympic calm", "Homeric laughter", "Sisyphean labor", "Titanic efforts" and others

The most vivid manifestation of Greek culture was the emergence of philosophical thinking.

Philosophy first appeared on the border of two civilizations in the form of natural philosophy - the philosophy of nature. In natural philosophy, the deductive method was spontaneously used - some of the speculative prerequisites, some first principles from which the whole diversity of the phenomena of the world were derived, were chosen as the basis for explaining the world.

The first sage in history (the term "philosopher" then was not), - Thales (625-545 BC), who lived in Miletus, city , located from Athens on the other side of the Aegean Sea, in Lydia, the Athenian colony, the state of Asia Minor, in which at that time reigned the famous Crown, famous for its wealth. Thales, while studying astronomy (at that time - astrology) and using the knowledge of magicians and Chaldeans, predicted an eclipse, which, according to astronomers, occurred in 585 BC

The main subject of the first philosophers' reflections was the search for the first principle. In Thales, they had water - "everything is water". According to Aristotle, Thales believed that water is the primary substance, and everything else is formed from it, he also argued that the Earth rests on the water. In making this conclusion, he did not rely on any mythological ideas, but proceeded solely from what his own mind prompted him, rather than traditional knowledge and ideas. In other words, Thales tried to explain the world, based on natural causes, i.e. from himself.

Taking water for a single beginning of all things, he was the first to try (within the framework of philosophical, rational, non-mythological thinking) to solve the problem of one and many, reducing all the variety of things to water. With his dialectic, he understood that behind the visible diversity lies the unity of nature.

The water for Thales was the focal point of all opposites (water can be cold and hot, it can turn into a solid and gaseous state, it does not have a definite standing shape (ie, it is something vague) and at the same time it is sensually defined (it can be seen, touched, smelled and even heard)).

Assessing the views of the philosopher from modern positions, one can not help but be amazed at his intuition - water does not just occupy two-thirds of the globe, it permeates it, constitutes the greater part of all living beings. Water is recognized as a condition of life on the planets, as it explores, all the new amazing properties of water are discovered that vary depending on the conditions; As its constituent (hydrogen), water is the most abundant substance in the universe.

Two legends are known about Thales. The first - about how he, foreseeing on the basis of astronomical data a rich harvest of olives, rented all the dairies, began to dictate prices for their products and, thus, became rich. The second is about how Thales, looking at the starry sky, fell into a pit (they say, he is hovering in the clouds, but what he does not see under his feet). These legends reflect the relationship to philosophy - from adoration to contempt - that has survived to the present day.

We give the well-known saying of Thales. Once the philosopher said that between life and death, peg the difference. "Why do not you die?" They asked him. "That's why", he replied.

This dictum traces the eastern idea of ​​death.

The disciple of Thales was Anaximander (610 - 547/540 BC), also a native of Miletus, who put forward the idea of ​​arche, the beginning, and as such considered apeiron (unlimited). Apeiron Anaximander is not water or air, but something like an abstract matter, a substance from which all the diversity of the visible world occurs.

Anaximenes (585/560-525/502 BC), Anaximander's pupil, developing the ideas of Thales and Anaximander, considered as the first principle the air which, condensed and diluted, generates water, earth, fire, i.e. all the variety of things and phenomena.

The subject of analysis of early thinkers was the world and the whole, the cosmos and which the role of man was insignificant, so they did not pay attention to psychology of attention. Nevertheless, all philosophers spoke about the soul.

The views of the representatives of the Miletus school are known only by doxography and commentaries of other philosophers.

The wise men from Miletus contributed to the emergence of philosophical thought in ancient Greece. Following them, the philosophers advanced doctrines in which the principles implicit in the Milesian philosophers developed. Thus, the searches by the Milesians of a single primordial origin led Xenophanes and Parmenides to the doctrine of universal being, and their attempts to find a rational explanation for the apparently manifold variety of things led Pythagoras to the theory of numbers and numerical regularities underlying all things.

Pythagoras (570-490 BC). was born on the island of Samos, visited Egypt and Babylon, where he met with ancient oriental mathematics and astrology, as well as magic. He was consecrated in Egyptian temples, was admitted to the sacraments as a man of an extraordinary mind. Note the following interesting fact of his biography: Pythagoras was the winner of the Olympic Games in the fistfight.

About 532 BC. he settled in the city of Croton, where he founded the famous Pythagorean Union - a closed organization with a secret teachings. The union accepted persons of both sexes who withstood a long test of their moral qualities and intelligence.

The property of the members of the union was common, upon entering the society it was adopted by special economists, as later in the Christian communities. Pythagoras himself exalted himself above other people to the level of a deity. The sign of his divinity was the "golden hip", which he showed to the neophytes. Members of the Union took power in Croton in their own hands and spread their influence over the whole of Southern Italy. But as a result of the rebellion against the dominance of members of this society in management, the organization disintegrated. Pythagoras himself fled to Metanont, where he lived until his death.

It is believed that it was Pythagoras who first used the word philosopher & quot ;, i.e. loving wisdom & quot ;, and not sage - Wisdom carrier (a more humble definition). The original works of Pythagoras did not survive. His teachings are known from the works of other authors (Aristotle, Diogenes Laertius) and the information presented by them is full of contradictions. Reliable only the data that Pythagoras considered the soul immortal, after the death of the body moving into a new body. This idea of ​​metempsychosis (transmigration of souls) was known to Egyptian priests and ancient Indian brahmins.

The soul, according to Pythagoras, can be purified through research and knowledge of the musical-numerical structure of the cosmos This structure is expressed in the sum of the first numbers (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10) number of 10 - "sacred decade" Pythagoras. In the mystical decade, the unit represents God, the deuce of matter, the triple combination of the Monad and the Duad (units and deuces), which carries within itself the nature of both, the phenomenal world; The tetrad (four) or the form of perfection, expresses the emptiness of everything, and the Decade or the sum of all includes the whole cosmos.

Pythagoras also invented a musical notation based on seven sounds.

In his teaching, the philosopher asserted that "the wisest" Is a number. It lies at the heart of the world, owns it.

Pythagoras is known to us as a mathematician. He is credited with the authorship of the famous Pythagorean theorem, as well as the discovery of the phenomenon of incommensurability by the example of the ratio of the diagonal of a square to its side.

The experiment with musical strings, one of the first in the history of science, to prove the dependence of tone on string length, strengthened Pythagoras' belief in the omnipotence of numbers, confirming the principle of the dependence of quality on quantity.

Pythagoras also owned the idea of ​​reducing any science to mathematics, according to which science is such only to the extent that mathematics is represented in it. Pythagoras created a true number philosophy, and even happiness regarded as knowledge of the perfection of numbers.

He is also known as the founder of the numerology - of the science of numbers. According to legend, it was Pythagoras who received famous numerological tables as a gift from the Dogon tribe. According to these tables, the Pythagoreans divided the numbers in quality into three main categories: imperfect, perfect and super-perfect.

Perfect numbers were considered, the sum of parts of which was equal to the whole. For example, the six: its half - three, the third - the deuce, and, finally, the sixth part - a unit, in the total amount to the whole number six.

Superficious Pythagoreans considered such numbers, the sum of parts of which exceeded the whole. This number, for example, is 12, the sum of its parts (half-six, third-four, quarter-three, sixth-two and twelve-one) add up to 16. The super-perfect numbers include numbers 18, 20, 24 , 30, 40, 44.

The imperfect are the numbers whose sum of parts is less than the whole. A good example of such a number is the figure eight (its half is a four, a quarter is a deuce and the eighth is a unit, in total they give a number seven).

After himself, Pythagoras left many instructions, following which one could lead the "right" life: in communication keep so as not to make friends enemies, and enemies - friends & quot ;; "You can not beg anything for the gods, for what is our good, we do not know and others

A well-known representative of the natural philosophy of the epoch in question was Heraclitus Ephesus (circa 540-480 BC), a vivid exponent of the new cosmology - the doctrine of the world.

Like Pythagoras, Heraclitus was a person who made a great impression, although not always favorable.

Heraclitus presented his thoughts aphoristically - in riddles, aphorisms and images - and for the difficulty of interpreting his metaphorical language was called "Dark", and "Crying" (due to the fact that more than once he expressed in his texts a pity for people who are meaninglessly spending their lives). Even Socrates, jokingly, admitted that everything he understood from Heraclitus was fine, but perhaps even better is what he did not understand.

One of the reasons for this "darkness" was that Heraclitus was a philosopher-poet. Not because he wrote poetry, like Parmenides, but because of the very style of his philosophizing, based on images, metaphors. Unlike Parmenides, Heraclitus did not follow logic, but intuition, guessing the true essence of things. Apparently, therefore, the best way to express his insights, he recognized exactly aphorisms and paradoxes. On the other hand, it seems possible that he deliberately concealed his thoughts for an esoteric shell that is inaccessible to the court of an idle crowd.

Here it is appropriate to recall the role played by esotericism in ancient times. The Biblical prophets, who sought to make their preaching common to all, were an exception. The priests of Egypt and Babylon, the Indian brahmanas, Greek mystagogues and the feathers, protected the secrets of their teachings with a blank wall, hiding it from the uninitiated. This hindered the wide dissemination of the most important and lofty ideas and left the "people" old superstitions and myths.

Greek philosophers, as a rule, had no esoteric doctrines. However, they also tried to limit the number of their adherents elected. Heraclitus was generally a loner, openly expressing contempt for people. Not only on the crowd poured out "The weeping philosopher" your sarcasm. Philosophers and poets-Hesiod, Archilochus, Xenophanes, Pythagoras-all gave pejorative characteristics. However, this feature of one of the first great thinkers of Greek Antiquity, apparently, was associated not only with pride, but also with the consciousness of one's mental strength and identity.

Heraclitus acted against the mythopoetic tradition (represented in the writings of Homer and Hesiod), and against the scientific rationalism of Ionian natural philosophy (Xenophanes, Parmenides). Both he and the other side reproached him for the quest for "knowledge", believing that the amount of information accumulated in any field does not lead to the discretion of the truth, to wisdom. Wisdom , according to Heraclitus, was to behold the diversity of a single beginning, "to know everything as one", to live by common sense, common to all, because immersion in a separate, private consciousness prevents the comprehension whole and united (people living so, "present, absent", like sleeping, are in dreams).

According to the teachings of Heraclitus, his new cosmology, the divine unity (mind, Zeus, Logos, cosmos) is above the fluid, volatile world of the multitude. The cosmos exists eternally in measured cycles, the measure which it sets itself, in that aspect in which it is identical with God; the cosmos is an everlasting fire, and this physical side of his being allows him to make a descent from a pure state (world conflagration) to a state of connectedness with other elements (natural sensual life) every time.

A person, according to the philosopher, is similar to the world, consists of a fiery beginning, soul and body. The best and wisest the soul becomes, when it is "dry, luminous", not burdened by satiety and intoxication, making it "damp", weak.

A sensuous world is like a current river, the water of which is updated every time in its movement. Everything is in a state of constant change and struggle (war), one arises from the destruction of the other and exists as a tense harmonious interconnection of various opposites. The world is eternal, there is a cycle. The basis of it is the fire. Cooling the fire gives rise to other elements and the variety of things. After a period of needs there comes a period of "excess" The fire that burns the whole world and creates judgment on it. But the changing world follows the laws and is ruled by a single divine wise principle, creating justice.

The sayings of Heraclitus, and these days, as before, are of interest and are often quoted.

• "Nature likes to hide."

• "The secret harmony is better than the obvious."

• "I was looking for myself."

• "It should be known that war is generally accepted, that enmity is the law and that everything arises through enmity and in a binding manner."

• "War is the father of all, the king of all: she alone declares by gods, others by men, by slaves alone, by others by free."

• "The pa coming into the same rivers flow in one at a time, another time the other waters".

• "This cosmos, the same for all, is created by none of the gods, none of the people, but it has always been, is and will forever be a living fire, glowing steadily, diminishingly diminishing".

• "The age is a child playing, dice throwing, child on the throne."

• "The people must fight for the trampled law as a wall (city)".

No less brilliant thinker, whose name was preserved in the history of psychology, was Empedocles (Akraganty) (490-430 BC) - philosopher, poet, physician, politician.


It is he who is considered the founder of the doctrine of the temperament as the mixing of the four elements in man (fire, water, earth, air), which is the expression of the cosmological concepts of the philosopher (in man the same processes occur as in space).

Representations of the dominant elements, uniting all natural philosophers of antiquity, were called hylozoism.

According to the ancient Tibetan traditions of such elements, there were five (air, water, earth, wind, fire), the Greeks numbered four elements, excluding wind from their number.

The elements were considered to be under the influence of Friendship (Love) and Enmity (Hatred), then connecting them, then dividing. Empedocles believed that these elements were directly represented in man and influenced his temperament.

Empedocles posed the most important question: what is the nature of the relationship between the physical object and the physiological basis of its sensory cognition, between the real world and the concept of it. The philosopher asserted that such relations bear the nature of similarity, similarity ("the like is known like", "Earth is the earth we see, and the water we see with water"). He saw similarity as identity (the same physical elements and act on the organ, and, entering into its composition, perceive this effect). Empedocles believed that visual, auditory, tactile sensations arise as a result of the penetration into the sense organs of material particles emitted by external bodies.

Empedocles proceeded from the idea of ​​similarity, spoke equally of all sensations, putting forward a general theory of the activity of sense organs, directly related to his general picture of nature. There are a number of important points in the diet and, first of all, the idea of ​​the need for physical contact between the organ acting on the object and the organ itself for the emergence of all types of sensations, not only contact, but also distant ones. He was born with the assumption that the difference between the sensations depends on the device of the perceiving organs.

From the point of view of Empedocles, the repository of the soul was the heart. This conclusion was made by the philosopher, observing patients whose heart failure led to death.

Like Heraclitus, Empedocles expressed his thoughts in a figurative, poetic form. But his imagination solved, like Heraclitus, not poetic, but philosophical tasks. As for Heraclitus, Pythagoras, Parmenides, for Empedocles, the image was not a means of explaining the finished thought, but an instrument without which it could not be expressed at all.

In the future, philosophers also used poetic forms. Thus, at the turn of the new era, the Roman Lucretius Car created a poem "About the nature of things" - a classic monument of ancient materialism. In Lucretia, the poetic form was used for essentially didactic purposes.

Now let us turn our attention to the problems of psychology in its development within the framework of the science of philosophy to its development within the framework of medicine. What did psychologists give to the practice of working with people who suffered from various ailments?

Hippocrates (circa 460 - circa 370 BC) is the "father of medicine", an ancient Greek physician, whose efforts isolated medicine from philosophy into a separate science.

Hippocrates was born on the island of Kos. He belonged to the genus Leklepiad, a dynasty of doctors, claiming that it originated from Asclepius, the god of medicine (in Roman mythology, Aesculapius).

The family of the Asklepiad, also called the Kosa School, in the 5th century BC. BC. preserved religious forms and customs. So, for example, they took an oath that closely linked the students with the teacher, with fellow workers. However, the religious nature of the corporation, although it required conditional norms of conduct, did not limit its members in search of truth, which remained strictly experienced.

Hippocrates received his first medical education from his father, a physician of Heraclides. In his youth Hippocrates traveled a lot, studying medicine in different countries according to the practice of local doctors.

The story of his life is little known. The name of Hippocrates became collective, and many of the 70 writings attributed to it belong to other authors, mostly to his sons. Genuine researchers acknowledge from 18 to 8 essays treatises "On the Winds", "On Air, Water and Locations", "Prognostics", "About the Diet for Acute Diseases", the first and third books "Epidemics", " Aphorisms (the first four sections), surgical treatises About joints and "About fractures", which are masterpieces of the "Collection".

There are several known works of Hippocrates of the ethical directions: "Oath", "Law", "About the doctor", "About good conduct", "Manuals", through which one can speak that the medicine of Hippocrates has turned into a medical humanism.

Hippocrates approach to the causes of disease was innovative. Unlike his predecessors, he believed that the diseases are not sent down by the gods, but are due to quite understandable reasons, for example, the impact of the environment. In the book "About the nature of man" Hippocrates put forward the hypothesis that health is based on the balance of four body juices: blood, sputum, yellow and black bile. Violation of this balance causes disease.

The doctor's task Hippocrates saw in the study of the individual characteristics of the patient, in ensuring mobilization of the body's strength for restoring health. In medical ethics Hippocrates put forward four principles of treatment: not to harm the patient; the opposite to treat the opposite; to help nature; spare the patient.

Hippocrates was the first to put medicine on scientific foundations and purify it of philosophical theories, often contradicting the reality that dominated the experimental, experimental side of it. The works of Hippocrates contain observations of the spread of diseases depending on the external influences of the atmosphere, seasons, wind, water and conclusions about the physiological effects of these effects on a healthy human body. In the same works, data on the climate of different countries are also given, the meteorological conditions of various localities and the dependence of diseases on these conditions are thoroughly studied.

Hippocrates divided the causes of diseases into two classes: common harmful influences from climate, soil, heredity and personal - conditions of life and work, nutrition (diet), age, etc.

The normal influence on the body of these conditions causes and the proper mixing of juices and, consequently, leads to health. Strictly observing the course of diseases, the scientist attached serious importance to their different periods. Especially it concerned diseases of febrile, acute. Hippocrates set certain days for the crisis, a fracture of the disease, when the body, according to his teaching, makes an attempt to get rid of the unboiled juices.

In other writings - About joints and About fractures Hippocardus described in detail surgical interventions. From these works it follows that surgery in ancient times was at a very high level; Medical instruments and bandages used in medicine of our time were used.

In the essay "On a diet for acute illnesses" Hippocrates initiated the rational dietetics and pointed to the need to nourish patients, even feverish. He developed diets for the forms of diseases-acute, chronic, surgical, etc.

250 herbal medicines were used for treatment, many of which are used to this day: barley broth, spurge, chicken, etc .; 50 means of animal origin, for example honey with vinegar. Hippocrates appointed banks, massage, baths, and made bloodlettings. He said that you need to be careful, consider how the body reacts to treatment. Its main principle was "Do no harm!".

Hippocrates died around 370 BC. in Larissa, in Thessaly, where he was placed a monument. Hippocratic Oath for thousands of years remains for doctors a code of professional honor.

Let's give some sayings of the scientist.

• "Healing is a matter of time, but sometimes it is also a matter of opportunity."

• "Old people are sicker than younger ones, but their illnesses end only with life."

• "First Doctrine of the Physician: Do No Harm."

• "Some patients, despite the consciousness of doom, recover only because they are confident in the skill of the doctor."

• "The doctor is a philosopher; there is not much difference between wisdom and medicine. "

• "In any disease, not to lose the presence of the spirit and to maintain a taste for food is a good sign; the opposite is bad. "

• "Treatments are a doctor, but nature cures."

• "Neither satiation, nor hunger and nothing else is good, seven transgress the measure of nature."

• Idleness and idleness lead to viciousness and ill health, on the contrary, the aspiration of the mind to something brings cheerfulness, eternally directed towards strengthening life. "

Democritus (circa 460-370 BC) in our narrative closes a string of ancient Greek natural philosophers who explained the world on the basis of the "primordial principle."

Hailing from a wealthy family, Democritus in his youth learned from the magicians and Chaldeans donated by the Persian king Xerxes to Democritus' father for feeding the Persian army that passed through Thrace, apparently defeated. After the death of his father, the philosopher spent his part of the rich inheritance on traveling, visiting Persia, India and Egypt. For some time he lived in Athens, where at that time he could listen to the speeches of Socrates and Anaxagoras. After returning to their homeland fellow citizens filed a philosopher in court for embezzlement of his father's inheritance, but, as the legend says, Democritus read to them two of his main books: Big Mirastroy (about the cosmos) and Small Mirostroi about society) and was completely justified.

Democritus followed his teacher Leucippus (assumed 500-440 BC) to develop an atomistic model of the world, embodying the principle of causality, according to which all events have their own cause.


According to the teachings of Democritus, atoms, whose number is infinite, differ from each other in three properties: "figure", "size" and rotation (position in space), so that composed of atoms of the macrobody have a variety of qualities. The philosopher believed that not only "nothing arises from nothing", as the preceding philosophers believed, and that "nothing arises without reason." Everything happens according to strict necessity and is determined by the motion of atoms. In an infinite space, combining into an uncountable multitude of worlds, indivisible and impenetrable particles move in unchanging laws, among which the light and spherical atoms of fire forming the soul are the most moving ones. Soul - is just one of the varieties of matter among others, the flow of fiery atoms. The physical law of scattering is applicable to both the body and the soul, which is also a body. Therefore, Democritus rejected the immortality of the soul.

Developing the idea outlined by Empedocles, the philosopher proceeded from the hypothesis of "expirations" things, the emergence of sensations as a result of the penetration into the sense organs of material particles emitted by external bodies. But Democritus has four "visible" element, moved, according to Empedocles, by Love and Vrajda, gave way to atoms indivisible to the smallest particles, which are completely alien to such qualities as color and warmth, taste and smell. Democritus was one of the first to point out the dependence of the qualities of things on the way they were cognized. All concepts that make up the language of our description of the outside world do not correspond to anything "truly", because all our knowledge, in essence, is of the nature of an agreement : "according to custom, sweetness, custom bitterness, custom cold, color, warmth, in fact - atoms and emptiness".

According to Democritus, since atoms do not have qualities (color, smell, taste, etc.), then these qualities are not present in things, because "nothing comes from nothing."

However, dismembering in the general composition of human knowledge what is reality and what exists only "in the opinion of" (thereby beginning the doctrine of the two categories of qualities-the primary qualities inherent in the things themselves and the secondary ones arising from the action of things on the sense organs), Democritus did not at all consider that the qualities existing "in the opinion of" do not really correspond in reality. For their difference there are differences in the objective properties of atoms.

Atoms themselves do not carry any properties, only their combination gives those or other qualities.

Democritus believed that the soul is in the head (the reasonable part), in the chest (courageous part), in the liver (lusting part) and in the senses. In the sense organs, the soul atoms are very close to the surface and can come into contact with microscopic, invisible copies of the surrounding objects (eidolami) that swirl through the air, falling into the senses. These copies separate (expire) from all objects of the external world (therefore this theory of knowledge is called the theory of expiration). When the eidols come into contact with the atoms of the soul, a sensation takes place, and it is in this way that a person learns the properties of the surrounding objects. Thus, all our sensations (including visual, auditory) are contact. Summarizing the data of several senses, a person opens the world, passing to the next level - the conceptual one, which is the result of the activity of thinking. In other words, Democritus assumed the existence of two stages in the cognitive process - sensations and thinking. At the same time he stressed that thinking gives us more knowledge than sensations. Thus, sensations do not allow us to see atoms, but by reflection we come to a conclusion about their existence. The theory of expiration was recognized as the basis for the formation of our sensory knowledge of the objective world by all materialists of ancient Greece.

Democritus argued that there are no accidents in the world and everything happens but a pre-determined reason. People came up with the idea of ​​an event to cover up ignorance of the matter and inability to govern. In fact, there are no accidents, and everything is causally conditioned, and the recognition of the unequivocal necessity of all events taking place in the world gives rise to a fatalistic tendency, denies the free will of man.

This approach was called determinism. Democritus critics stressed that with this understanding it is impossible not only to control one's own behavior, but also to evaluate the actions of people, since they depend not on the moral principles of man, but on fate .

However, Democritus sought to combine a fatalistic approach with the notion of human activity in selecting moral criteria for behavior. He wrote that moral principles are not given from birth, but are the result of education, so people become good through exercise, not nature. Education, in the opinion of Democritus, should give a person three gifts: to think well, speak well and do well. Children who grew up in ignorance are like dancing between swords, set up blades. They die if they do not fall into the only place where they should put their feet. So ignorant people, deviating from following the right example, usually die.

Democritus himself considered education so difficult that he consciously refused to marry and did not want to have children, believing that they are in a lot of trouble and, in case of luck, the latter is acquired at the price of great work, and in case of failure, the grief of parents is incomparable with any others.

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