Prefrontal Cortex THE Front Of THE MIND Psychology Essay

The Prefrontal Cortex is the front of the brain, located right beneath the forehead and it is the anterior region of the frontal lobe. The prefrontal cortex is a very important area in the brain and it is the most vunerable to injury. The prefrontal cortex is accountable for the functions of decision making, whether right or wrong, working storage, personality manifestation and cognitive conducts. The prefrontal cortex has major neurotransmitters that are participating straight in its proper functioning for example, glutamate and dopamine. The prefrontal cortex can be afflicted by diseases for example, Parkinson's disease and Schizophrenia. The prefrontal cortex is one of the last regions of the brain to develop therefore its functions and disorders remain being researched.

The prefrontal lobe is connected to the anterior region of the frontal lobe. The prefrontal lobe size increases slowly before era of eight, then a prefrontal growth spurt increases in between the age groups of eight and fourteen years. In contrast with other brain areas the prefrontal cortex is one of the previous region to development therefore the functions and disorders aren't immediately obvious (Kanemura 195).

As studied in an experiment called the Somatic Marker Hypothesis one can infer some of the prefrontal cortex functions. Although these tests have been performed the results do not apply to the whole prefrontal cortex. A prefrontal cortex function in the mind is decision making and human reasoning. Some of the decision making depends on awareness and overt cognition where as others do not. Those procedures that depend on conscious and cognition are reliant on the sensory images that are immediately coordinated to the early activity of cortices. Every one of the dependent procedures of awareness and cognition whatever the imagery are dependent on support operations for example, attention and working recollection. Further studies display that harm to the prefrontal cortex prohibits the utilization of the somatic signs necessary for guiding decision making within an advantageous direction (Bechara 428).

In addition to decision making being a main function working memory space is evenly an important function. These functions have been evaluated and results illustrate that their functions come from different and unique regions of the prefrontal cortex. While decision making functions arise in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, working ram processes appear in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Short-term memory is the kind of working memory space in relationship to prefrontal cortex (Humana Press 204)

Prefrontal Cortex Neurotransmitters

A neurotransmitter is a substance released by neurons that send nerve impulses in one cell to the next in the anxious system. A major neurotransmitter in the prefrontal cortex is Glutamate. Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter in the mind which is the most abundant amino acid in the diet. Within the prefrontal cortex glutamate is associated with cognitive function. In schizophrenic patients irregular levels of glutamate impair cognitive function. Another major neurotransmitter mixed up in function of the prefrontal cortex is dopamine. Dopamine is often associated with elements of the mind that stimulate pleasure, which provide enjoyment and reinforcement to enforce a person proactively to perform certain activities. Reduced degrees of dopamine impair working storage in the prefrontal cortex (Damasio 1413).

Diseases that have an effect on the Prefrontal Cortex

Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia are two diseases that have an effect on the prefrontal cortex. In both of the disorders the reduction of dopamine to the prefrontal cortex impairs working storage. Conversely, increasing dopamine levels in patients with these diseases boosts their performance of test that utilizes their working recollection. Parkinson's disease has been considered a paradigm of degenerative diseases of the stressed system seen as a motor impairment due to malfunction and loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. Recent specialized medical data shows improvements in patterns, personalilty changes, and cognitive impairment that lead to dementia. (Ferrer 89) Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that is seen as a abnormalities in the belief or expression of actuality. In Schizophrenia working memory space and cognitive deficits are in colaboration with prefrontal cortex dysfunction. (Manoach 285)


In bottom line, the prefrontal cortex is an important region of the frontal lobe that functions in decision making, cognitive manners, working ram, and personality manifestation. The prefrontal lobe has major neurotransmitters that assist in the communication of impulses from cell to cell throughout the anxious system. The reduction of those neurotransmitters in the prefrontal cortex may lead to diseases that affect the important functions of the cortex. The prefrontal lobe is one of the last regions of the mind to build up therefore leaving scientist with many research questions about its functions and possible disorders it could cause.

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