PRESCHOOL AGE (FROM 3 TO 6-7 YEARS)
Social development situation
Preschool age covers the period from 3 to 6-7 years. At this time, the child is separated from the adult, which leads to a change in the social situation. The child for the first time leaves the world of the family and enters the world of adults with certain laws and regulations. The main interest of the child moves from the world of objects to the world of adults. The circle of contacts widens: the preschooler visits stores, a polyclinic, and other institutions, where he observes the activities of adults, begins to communicate with peers.
The ideal form with which the child begins to interact is the social relations existing in the world of adult people. The ideal form, as Vygotsky considered, is that part of objective reality (higher than the level at which the child is located), with which he enters into direct interaction; this is the sphere in which the child is trying to enter. At the preschool age, this form becomes the world of adults.
According to DB El'konin, the entire preschool age revolves around its center, around an adult, his functions, his tasks. The adult here acts as the bearer of public functions in the system of social relations (adult - father, doctor, chauffeur, etc.). The contradiction of this social situation of development Elkonin saw that the child is a member of society, he can not live outside society, his basic need is to live together with the surrounding people, but he can not do this because the child's life passes under conditions of indirect and not direct communication with the world.
The child is not yet able to participate fully in the life of adults, but can express his needs through the game, as only it gives the opportunity to model the world of adults, enter it and lose all the roles and behaviors that interest him.
Game as a leading activity
The primary activity in preschool is the game. The game is a form of activity in which the child reproduces the basic meanings of human activity
and assimilates those forms of relations that will be realized and implemented subsequently. He does this by replacing one thing with another, and the actual action by a shortcut.
Special development at this age gets a story-role game. The basis of this game is the role chosen by the child, and the actions to implement this role.
D. B. Elkonin argued that the game is a symbolic-modeling type of activity, in which the operational and technical side is minimal, the operations are reduced, the objects are conditional. It is known that all types of preschool activities are of a modeling nature, and the essence of modeling is the reconstruction of an object in another, not natural material.
The subject of the game is the adult as the bearer of any social functions, entering into some relations with other people, adhering to certain rules in his activity.
The game forms an internal plan of action. The child, playing, focuses on human relationships. To reflect them, he must internally lose not only the entire system of his actions, but the entire system of consequences of these actions, so the game creates the conditions for the formation of an internal plan of action.
Elkonin showed that play is a historical formation, and it arises when a child can not take part in the system of social labor, because for this he is still small. But he wants to enter into adulthood, so he does it through the game, as far as possible in contact with this life. In the story-role game, the child assumes the role of another and loses an imaginary situation, thus joining the adult world, learning their rights, responsibilities and relationships.
Playing, the child not only has fun, but also develops. At this time, there is a development of cognitive processes, personality and behavioral features.
Children play most of the time. During the pre-school childhood period, the game goes through a significant development path (Table 6).
Junior preschoolers play alone. The game is subject-manipulative and design. This game will be more correctly called not story-role, but plot-mapping. In this game, the actions of adults are reproduced, for which the child watches. An example for imitation are parents and close acquaintances. Plots of such games are not particularly diverse, they consist in repeated repetition of the same actions, game actions completely imitate real ones.
The main stages of gaming in the preschool age
Age of the child
Partners (companion) on the game
The impact of the game on the development of the child
Objectively manipulative, story-role game
Younger preschooler (2,5-4 years)
Actions of the role (depict an adult performing various functions)
Assimilate human functions in society (mother, seller, etc.)
The story-role game
Average preschooler (3,5-4 years)
The content is complicated, the life or fairy story is played out, the roles are open, and the rules are still hidden
Need a friend for the game. If the role is performed incorrectly, then a scandal begins
1) human functions;
2) ways to implement them;
3) rules of relationships
The story of the game: 1) game with rules
Senior preschooler (5-7 years old)
Assimilating norms and rules for the role, the main thing in the game is to act according to the rules
You need a friend to play. If someone does not follow the rules, they remove it from the game
Self-regulation develops, the first form of volitional behavior appears - an act
Senior preschooler (5-7 years old)
The image of fairy-tale heroes, assimilation of moral-aesthetic norms of behavior (fairy-tale characters - carriers of norms)
You need a friend to play. There are conflicts about choosing a role
The child hones the skills of communication, moral traits are formed
In the middle period of pre-school childhood a child needs a peer with whom he will play. Now the main direction of the game is the imitation of relations between people. The themes of story-role games are different; certain rules are introduced, which the child strictly adheres to. The direction of the games is diverse: a family one, where the characters are Mom, Dad, Grandmother, Grandfather and other relatives; educational (nanny, teacher in kindergarten); professional (doctor, commander, pilot); fabulous (goat, wolf, rabbit), etc. The game can participate both adults and children, or they can be replaced with toys.
In the older preschool age, story-role games are distinguished by a variety of topics, roles, game actions, rules. Themes of games go far beyond the personal experience of children. Items can be conditional, and the game turns into a symbolic one, i.e. a cube can represent different objects: a car, people, animals - it all depends on the role assigned to it. At this age during the game, children begin to show different personal qualities, which determine the roles and functions that the child gets. The game interaction reflects the real relationship of children - friendship, leadership, rivalry, enmity.
During the game, mental processes develop, in particular voluntary attention and memory. If the game is of interest to the child, then he involuntarily focuses on the subjects included in the game situation, on the content of the actions being played and the plot. If he is distracted and improperly fulfills the role assigned to him, he can be expelled from the game. But since emotional encouragement and communication with peers for a child are very important, he has to be attentive and remember certain game moments.
In the process of playing activity, mental abilities develop. The child learns to act with the subject-substitute, i.e. gives him a new name and acts in accordance with this name. The appearance of the subject-substitute becomes the mainstay for the development of thinking. If, first with the help of substitute subjects, the child learns to think about a real subject, then with time, actions with substitute subjects decrease and the child learns act with real objects. There is a smooth transition to thinking in terms of representations.
In the course of the role-play, imagination develops. By replacing some objects with others and the ability to take on various roles, the child passes to the representation of objects and actions with them in his imagination . For example, six-year-old Masha, examining a photograph of a girl who propped her cheek with her finger and looks thoughtfully at the doll sitting near the toy sewing machine, says: "The girl thinks as if her doll is sewing." According to this statement, one can judge the girl's way of playing.
The game also affects the personal development of the child. In the game, he reflects and tries on the behavior and relationships of significant adults who at that moment act as a model of his own behavior. The basic skills of communicating with peers are formed, the development of feelings and willful regulation of behavior goes on.
Reflexive thinking begins. Reflection is the ability of a person to analyze their actions, actions, motives and correlate them with universal values, as well as with the actions, actions and motives of others of people. The game contributes to the development of reflection, because it makes it possible to control how the action that enters the communication process is being carried out. For example, when playing in a hospital, a child cries and suffers, acting as a patient. He gets satisfaction from this, because he believes he has performed well.
There is an interest in drawing and designing. At first, this interest manifests itself in a playful form: the child, drawing, plays a certain plot, for example, the beasts drawn by him battle each other, catch up each other, people go home, the wind blows apples hanging on trees, etc. Gradually, drawing is transferred to the result of the action, and the drawing is born.
Inside the game activity, learning activity begins. Elements of learning activity do not arise in the game themselves, they are entered by an adult. The child begins to learn, playing, and therefore refers to learning activities as a role-playing game. The transition from the game activity to the educational is the didactic game, specifically aimed at developing the child new information about the world.
Since the child pays special attention to the story-role game, consider it in more detail.
Story-role play is a game in which a child performs the role he has chosen and performs certain actions. Plots for games children usually choose from life. Gradually, with the change of reality, the acquisition of new knowledge and life experience, the content and stories of role-playing games change.
The structure of the expanded form of the role-playing game is as follows.
1. The unit, the center of the game. This is the role that the child chooses. In the children's game there are many professions, family situations, life moments that made a great impression on the child.
2. Game actions. These are actions with values, they are of an iconic nature. In the process of the game, values are transferred from one subject to another (an imaginary situation). However, this transfer is limited by the ability to display an action, since it obeys a certain rule: only an object with which one can reproduce at least an action pattern can mix the subject.
the symbols of the game. DB Elkonin said that abstracting from the operational and technical side of objective actions makes it possible to model the system of relations between people.
As the system of human relations begins to be modeled in the game, it becomes necessary to have a friend. One can not achieve this goal, otherwise the game will lose its meaning.
In the game, the meanings of human actions are born, the line of development of actions goes as follows: from the operational scheme of action to human action that makes sense in another person; from single action to its meaning.
3. Rules. During the game, a new form of pleasure for the child arises - the joy of being acting as required by the rules. Playing in the hospital, the child suffers as a patient and rejoices as a player, satisfied with the fulfillment of his role.
Studying the games of children aged 3-7, DB El'konin singled out and characterized four levels of its development.
1) Actions with certain items aimed at the accomplice of the game. This includes the actions of the mother or doctor & quot ;, aimed at the child & quot ;;
2) roles are determined by the action. Roles are not called, and children in the game do not use relative to each other the real relationships existing between adults or between an adult and a child;
3) actions consist of repetitive operations, for example, feeding with the transition from one dish to another. In addition to this action, nothing happens: the child does not lose the process of cooking, washing hands or dishes.
1) the main content of the game is the action with the object. But here the gameplay corresponds to the real thing in the foreground;
2) the role of children is called, and a division of functions is planned. The implementation of the role is determined by the implementation of actions associated with this role;
3) the logic of actions is determined by their sequence in real reality. The number of actions is expanding.
1) The main content of the game - the implementation of the actions resulting from the role. Special actions are beginning to be allocated that convey the nature of the relationship to other participants in the game, for example, contacting the seller: "Give bread" and so on;
2) roles are clearly delineated and highlighted. They are called before the game, determine and guide the behavior of the child;
3) the logic and nature of the actions are determined by the role assumed. Actions become more diverse: cooking, washing hands, feeding, reading a book, putting to bed, etc. There is a specific speech: the child gets used to the role and speaks as required by the role. Sometimes in the process of the game, real relationships between children can manifest themselves: they start calling themselves names, swearing, teasing, etc.,
4) a violation of logic is protested. This is expressed in the fact that one says to another: "It does not happen." The rules of behavior that children must obey are defined. Incorrect execution of actions is noticed from the outside, this causes the child to be upset, he tries to correct the mistake and find an excuse for it.
1) the main content - the performance of actions related to the attitude to other people, whose roles are performed by other children;
2) roles are clearly delineated and highlighted. During the game, the child adheres to a certain line of behavior. Role functions of children are interrelated. The speech is clearly role-based;
3) the actions take place in a sequence that clearly recreates the real logic. They are diverse and reflect the richness of the actions of the person portrayed by the child;
4) violation of the logic of actions and rules is rejected. The child does not want to violate the rules, explaining this by the fact that it is in fact, and also the rationality of the rules.
During the game, children actively use toys. The role of the toy is multifunctional. Firstly, it acts as a means of the child's mental development, secondly, as a means of preparing him for life in the modern system of social relations, and thirdly, as an object serving for fun and entertainment.
In infancy the child manipulates the toy, it stimulates it to active behavioral manifestations. The toy develops perception, i.e. Forms and colors are imprinted, orientations appear on the new, preferences are formed.
In early childhood the toy performs in an autodidactical role. This category of toys includes nesting dolls, pyramids, etc. They have the potential to develop manual and visual actions. Playing, the child learns to distinguish between sizes, shapes, colors.
The child receives many toys - substitutes for real objects of human culture: cars, household items, tools, etc. Thanks to them, he mastered the functional purpose of objects, mastered the instrumental activities. Many toys have historical roots, for example bow with arrows, boomerang, etc.
Toys, which are copies of objects existing in the everyday life of adults, attach the child to these subjects. Through them there is an awareness of the functional purpose of objects, which helps the child psychologically enter the world of permanent things.
Various household items are used as toys: empty coils, match boxes, pencils, scraps, ropes, and also natural material: cones, twigs, slivers, bark, dry roots, etc. These items in the game can be used in different ways, it all depends on its plot and situational tasks, so in the game they act as polyfunctional.
Toys - a means of influencing the moral side of the child's personality. A special place among them is occupied by dolls and soft toys: bears, squirrels, rabbits, dogs, etc. First, the child produces imitations with the doll, i.e. does what the adult shows: shakes, rolls in a stroller, etc. Then the doll or soft toy act as an object of emotional communication. The child learns to empathize with her, patronize, take care of her, which leads to the development of reflection and emotional identification.
Dolls are copies of a person, they have a special significance for the child, since they act as a partner in communication in all its manifestations. The child becomes attached to her doll and thanks to her experiences a variety of different feelings.
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