Principles of constructing corrective-developing occupationsDevelopment of developmental and psycho-corrective classes should be based on the following principles: the need to take into account the main developmental tasks in adolescence, the leading activity, the special features of the social situation of the development of adolescents who have remained without parental care, and the attractiveness of the form of work. Classes should be aimed at developing a temporary perspective for young people, reflection, the formation of skills of introspection and productive communication. These features and tasks determined the choice of the method of corrective-developing work, it was the socio-psychological training (SPT). The SPT method originates from humanistic psychology, which can be defined as "an attempt to open a person and his situation to himself, so that he is more aware of all means what forces influence his experience and, consequently, his actions." The main task of psychological influence is considered to be personal assistance, and the most significant way is to expand the person's self-awareness: increasing experience of experiences, increasing the potential of elections and increasing the degree of individual freedom.
The work of the training group is characterized by a number of specific principles. Activity - involving participants in specially designed actions: playing, talking, simulating the situation.
Research position, self-diagnosis - group members learn to understand, discover their personal resources. Awareness of behavior - feedback sentencing. Confidentiality - an agreement with the participants not to endure the content of the training beyond the boundaries of the group. Comfortable atmosphere - the closure of the group from external influences, the mutual respect of the participants, the atmosphere of trust and understanding.
The most frequently used methodical methods of socio-psychological training are group discussions, role games, psycho-gymnastics. Corrective classes on the development of the socio-psychological competences of adolescents raised without parental care can be based on programs for the development of the personality in adolescent and senior school age, developed by IV Dubrovina, AG Liders, EG Troshikhina, G U. Soldatova, IA Furmanov, and others.
In the course of correction-developing occupations it is expedient to open the following topics and implement the tasks:
1. Mutual acquaintance, familiarity with the objectives of the classes, the rules of work, the establishment of the contact leader-group & quot ;, the formation of group cohesion, the receipt of wishes about the topics of employment from adolescents.
2. Professional elections, the situation of the device to work, the qualities necessary in the chosen profession, the professional future. Further consolidation of the group,
establishing contact with the group, self-actualization, testing yourself in different roles, updating the temporary professional perspective, developing self-presentation skills.
3. Immersion in your inner world - "Who am I?", "What am I?". Work with breathing, relaxation. Development of self-analysis and analysis of the qualities of another person, acquaintance with the ways of relaxation and rest.
4. What am I in the eyes of others? Confidence. The actualization of knowledge about human qualities, the identification of the qualities of another person, the concept of "trust", the definition of how much we trust people.
5. I'm in a situation of communication. Actualization of states in situations of communication and conflict situations, ways of getting out of conflict situations. If the group is ready - the introduction of feedback.
6. Past present Future. The significance of another person and his experiences. Conclusion through the drawing of experiences of the present, past and future. Verbalization of experiences. Emphasis on the feelings and experiences of another person, understanding the other. Development of planning skills.
7. Vocational guidance game "Compliment". Formation of ideas about the requirements of the profession to a person, the ability to relate a person to different professions, work together. Feedback to the leader and group.
Classes are held in permanent groups, in each - no more than 9 people (1-2 lessons per week).
From the experience of psychological and pedagogical work with adolescents at risk
Thanks to the activities of the SPT, adolescents form ideas about the interview situation when hiring, the experience of presenting themselves, talking with the employer, the opportunity to visit different roles, to look at the situation of hiring from different points of view. This experience is very small, but in the future, when preparing for a similar situation, this experience will be useful. Effective classes for the removal of fear of the unknown, unpredictability of the questions of the employer. It acquires the skill of professional communication, drawing up a resume. Task "I'm perfect at 30 years will enable teenagers to reflect on their future, as they want to see themselves. Exercises for relaxation provide a tool for restoring strength.
During the lessons, the guys get the experience of working together, which increases self-esteem and self-confidence. Work associated with the characterization of self, the other contributes to the development of introspection. Pronouncing in an open form of "trust - distrust" classmates contributes to increasing respect for adolescents to each other, makes positive changes in the relationship of children. Exercises Swing (with a candle) create a warm atmosphere, demonstrate patterns of cultural communication.
The most effective in our work were the following exercises and methods: work related to trust, writing a resume and playing the interview situation, a career-oriented game and a candle with compliments.
Obviously, the psychological accompaniment of adolescents without parental care should not be reduced to conducting trainings: they can not significantly influence the development of social and psychological readiness for independent life. It is possible to expect positive changes only in the field of preconditions for readiness (see the works of LI Bozhovich). The program should provide for both individual and group sessions, which must be included in the classroom and be maintained from the beginning of the academic year by one permanent psychologist (group). For adolescents, psychological studies should focus primarily on developing self-knowledge and productive communication skills. The educational environment of the school also needs changes, as described above.
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