Principles of building an educational environment
An analysis of innovative forms and methods of working with adolescents who find themselves in a difficult life situation shows that various forms of socially-oriented instruction and extracurricular activities, including activities on interests, as well as psycho- pedagogical support of children in the process of this activity. An important condition for the effectiveness of work in this direction is, first of all, the orientation of teachers and the administration on the ethics of non-violence against children, the observance of their legal rights, the development of skills of social competence, which is an integral part of the adaptive and developing environment of the educational institution.
In recent years, the concept of the "school educational system" has entered pedagogy. His appearance is due to the influence on the theory and practice of educating the ideas of the system approach, which have become widespread in modern science. Petersburg researchers IA Kolesnikova and E. N. Baryshnikov believe that the educational system reflects a specific way of organizing the educational process at the level of a particular institution. E.N. Stepanov believes that the main purpose of the educational system is to provide pedagogical support and promote the development of the child's personality. In his opinion, the educational system is an orderly integrated set of components, interaction and integration of which determines the ability of an educational institution or its structural unit to purposefully and effectively promote the development of the personality of students. The general ability to promote the development of the child's personality is presented to the researcher as a whole, consisting of individual (private) abilities, such as:
- the ability to diagnose the development of the personality of the student, children's and teachers' groups;
- the ability to put forward and justify the goal of the educational process;
- the ability to organize the life activity of the community of children and adults, maximally favorable for self-realization and self-affirmation of the personality of the child, teacher and parent;
- the ability to integrate the efforts of the subjects of the educational process, make them the most effective;
- the ability to create in an educational institution and beyond its development environment, morally favorable and emotionally saturated;
- the ability to carry out scientifically based analysis of the current socio-educational situation, the results of educational activities, etc.
Characterizing the internal structure of the educational system, scientists express different points of view about the composition of the components of the system. This is explained by the complexity and polystyrene of systemic education, as well as the existing differences in the opinions of researchers about which components (elements) of the system should be considered basic, the most important. Academician LI Novikova and her colleagues are among the following:
a) the goals expressed in the original concept;
b) activities that ensure the achievement of targets;
η) the subject of the activity, its organizing and participating in it;
d) relations that are born in activity and communication, integrating the subject into a certain community;
e) the environment of the system, mastered by the subject;
e) management, ensuring the integration of components into an integrated system and the development of this system.
The nature of the targets can serve as the basis for determining the type of educational system. If the system is oriented to the child's personality, to develop his natural talents and abilities, to create an environment of social security and creative cooperation in an educational institution, then such a system is humanistic. If the system is oriented to a constant, scrupulous presentation of demands, to the upbringing of obedience, and discipline is both the goal and the main educational tool, then such a system is authoritarian and anti-human.
A human-personal approach to the child is the key link, the basis of personally oriented pedagogical technologies in the educational process. This approach puts the development of the whole whole set of personality qualities in the center of the educational and upbringing system. The measure of this development is proclaimed the main result of education and upbringing, the criterion of the quality of the work of a psychologist, teacher, specialist, leader, educational institution in general.
The necessary conditions for constructing an adaptive-developing environment should be the purposeful and systematic work of the teaching staff in the following areas:
1. Analysis, identification and gradual elimination of weaknesses in the institution with a special category of adolescents;
2. Construction of variational models and forms of multidisciplinary complex (psychological, pedagogical, medical and social-legal) support of the child in the stages of its development;
3. A system of comprehensive child support from various departments and services that are legally required to ensure compliance with its fundamental rights and guarantees.
The term adaptive-developing environment is a general concept integrating such components as the educational system of the institution, the environment for living, communicating and interacting with pupils, the system of comprehensive support for a child who has the status of "left without parental care."
This type of environment should ensure the processes of the child's entry into the world of social relations, provide opportunities for mastering the norms and rules of behavior necessary for both human adaptation in the microenvironment and in the expanded society. At the same time, one adaptive activity, i. assimilation of existing norms and rules, today is clearly not enough for the successful functioning of a young man in society. The requirements and challenges of modern society encourage the adolescent to learn new lines of personal development through the acquisition of social competence skills necessary for his successful socialization. This is especially important for a teenager in the situation of lack of assistance from the family and close associates.
Each educational institution has a specificity that will ask for the human and creative potential, differences in pedagogical experience and preferences for this or that pedagogical concept, peculiarities of the students' life situation. At the same time, there are general principles and patterns of educational systems that need to be known and used as a basis for constructing variative models of the adaptive-developing environment. These include the following pedagogical principles (the concept of VB Remizov and IV Yezhov).
The principle of humanism assumes an attitude toward the child as a supreme value, purpose, and not an object of education; unconditional acceptance of the child, love and respect for him, respect for his rights and freedoms, including his right to make mistakes, believing in him, tolerance of his shortcomings, unconditional refusal of moral and physical violence towards him, priority of positive incentives.
The principle of democratization of relationships involves equalizing the child and the teacher in rights, the child's right to free choice, his own point of view, including on parenting issues; the style of the child's relationship with the teacher: "not to prohibit, but to direct; not to govern, but to co-manage; not to coerce, but to convince; not to command, but to organize. "
The principle of the individual personal approach assumes the search for the best qualities of the personality in the child, identification and assistance in resolving the problems of the student's personal development, the application of psychological and pedagogical diagnostics (interests, abilities, orientation, self-concept, etc.); the account of features of the person in educational process; prediction of personality development; the development of individual development programs for children, a combination of upbringing and self-education.
The principle of naturalness assumes a deep knowledge of the characteristics of the child's personal development, its natural potential, abilities and talents, the construction of an educational process based on this knowledge, the creation of pedagogical conditions for consistent development in accordance with natural data and age characteristics .
The principle of creativity and freedom assumes the creation of the necessary conditions for self-education, self-development, self-improvement of the child, active participation in building his own life; development of individual and collective forms of activity that contribute to this development and create conditions for freedom of creativity.
The principle of freedom and choice assumes the organization of an educational process in which the child has the opportunity to make a free choice of activities (type, content and methods), corresponding to his abilities and needs, in which he can show abilities and the best personal qualities.
The principle of cul-tural appropriateness assumes the provision of the most favored-nation treatment to students in their involvement in culture, in the formation of a culture of feeling, aesthetic taste, immunity against low-quality spiritual products.
The principle of complexity and integrity assumes the upbringing and development of positive qualities of the child in a complex with the interested participation of all participants in the educational process, involving adults who are psychologically significant for the child.
Along with the above principles for building an adaptive-developing environment, the following concepts are used:
- the meaning of life - a person's awareness of the main content of all his activities (past, present, future), which determines his place and significance in the world; what gives life a value;
- the soul is a concept used to denote the inner world of a person, his consciousness, self-awareness;
- personality - a person as a representative of society, which determines freely and responsibly its position among others, in the space of culture and time;
- Reason - the ability to appropriately comprehend and use knowledge about the world and the soul of a person; general and verbal intelligence, the ability to plan their activities, predict the course of events for the peaceful coexistence of man and nature, man and society;
- the culture of feeling - the desire for free unification "I" with the surrounding world, the moral orientation of the individual, the ability to solve problems without aggression and causing harm to others and all life; cooperation, non-violent communication; adherence to democratic principles; a sense of beauty as a way of establishing harmony between man and the world; the ability, while preserving one's own and others' dignity, to serve the common cause;
- independence - the ability to make your own right choice; freedom of choice in the name of humanistic development;
- Humanism is a system of views that recognizes the value of a person as a person, his right to freedom, happiness, development and manifestation of all abilities, which considers a person's good to be a criterion for assessing social phenomena, and the principles of equality, justice, humanity - the desired norm of relations in society;
- psycho-pedagogical support - the activity of teachers in providing preventive and operative help to children in solving their individual problems related to physical and mental health, communication, positive development, life and professional self-determination;
- a systematic approach - a methodological orientation in an activity in which the object of cognition or control is viewed as a system;
- an educational system - an orderly integrated set of components, the interaction and integration of which determines the ability of the institution of education or its structural unit to purposefully and effectively promote the development of the personality of students;
- Personally oriented approach - methodological orientation in psychological and pedagogical activity, including a look at the personality of the child as a goal, and not a means of education, the refusal of direct coercion as a means of violence against the child's personality; allowing to support and support the processes of self-expression, self-development, self-improvement of the child's personality, development of his personality;
- comprehensive support for the development of the child, which involves ensuring sufficient conditions for the child to solve his problems and difficulties and mastering the social skills and competencies necessary for his successful socialization and integration into society.
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