THE PROBLEM OF METHOD IN PSYCHOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE
The weight of science has turned into a special and independent field of knowledge due to the appearance in them of an experimental method. In psychology, this method penetrated in the second half of the XIX century. thanks to psychophysiological studies of the nervous system of animals and psychophysical studies of the activity of the human senses. Psychophysiology and psychophysics are two fundamental directions of classical psychology as sciences, grown on the experimental method - the most powerful method of natural science cognition.
The experimental method originated in natural science in connection with the study of the material properties of objects of nature. More than other sciences in its application and development has succeeded physics. As a result, the rules of the scientific experiment were formulated, which are quite applicable in physical research, but not completely suitable for studies of more complex psychic phenomena.
For example, the requirement of reproducibility of the fact obtained in the experiment in psychological research can not always be fulfilled, since in the repeated experiment the experience and skill acquired by the testers will affect the results. At the same time, the subject can consciously change his action, choice and behavior in connection with a changed motivation or relationship with the experimenter.
With all the indisputable merits, the experimental method immediately exhausted itself when psychological research is transferred to more complex properties of a person's mental organization (psycho-reflexive, socially-psychological and activity-transformative). The fact is that with the manifestations of these properties, the influence of the indeterminative factor of subjectivity on the processes of objectivization of a person's mental potential in his subject-practical activity and social interaction is significantly increased.
An experiment is an ego experience that includes research activities to test assumptions (hypotheses) about cause-effect (causal) relationships between two or more object properties or objects themselves.
In natural science, these relationships are seen as the relationship between material objects and their properties. In psychology by that
The same logic and rules of the experiment are studying the relationships between the material properties of objects and the ideal properties of subjects of reflection and transformation of these objects. Analysis of these dependencies and conclusions are made in psychological science according to the logic of , which has repeatedly been criticized because of the paradoxical nature of man's subjective reaction to the same stimulus. Criticism reached statements about the impossibility of applying the experimental method in psychological cognition. But even this is not so. The experimental method certainly preserves both the urgency and epistemological possibilities for psychological cognition, but under the condition of an inevitable departure from some of the rules that sound dogmatically for a psychological experiment. The main advantage of the experimental method, concluded in the possibilities of modeling cause-effect relationships, can be used in a psychological experiment.
As a result of the development of empirical research in psychology, the problem of the method arose because of the impossibility of directly penetrating into the mysterious world of individual human psychology by means of physical experiment. But this did not stop the researchers of the inner world of man as a phenomenon of his psychology. The search and inventions of other methods that can provide objectification of ideal psychic phenomena have begun and are still being conducted. The problem of internalization of the outside was a stumbling block for the knowledge of the mental as the ideal property of man. All methods of psychological cognition try to overcome this problem. In the absence of methodologically developed rules in solving this problem, each researcher is forced to rely on his own experience and intuition in the selection or invention of research instruments. This problem was transformed into the reliability requirements of the method. They are formulated in the principles of validity, the number of which is growing steadily. So, in the Big psychological dictionary Arthur Reber named 24 types of validity of psychological research, which are difficult to distinguish in empirical studies and used to determine the correctness of mental objectification. As a result, the problem of validity in psychological cognition becomes insoluble.
One of the attempts to penetrate the inner world of man was associated with the introspection method, which initiated introspective psychology subjected to destructive criticism for uncontrolled subjectivism. As a result, self-observation materials were rejected as a psychological fact, which academic psychology sometimes questions. BG Ananiev wrote about this: "For us, self-observation is not methodological but methodical processing, which still awaits systematic study and technical improvements ... self-observation acts as a component of many other methods ... as a verbal report" . Verbal reports are one of the forms of objectification of internal representations to the outside. It is presented in oral and written texts, which are analyzed by the means of the psycho-semantic method.
Self-observation is associated with the problem of self-knowledge - a purely psychological phenomenon. Some progress towards the objectification of this process was done through self-assessment scales, thanks to which the most important rule of the experimental procedure-the measurement of the psychological phenomenon-was realized in the psychological study of subjectivity.
With the measurement, a quantitative description of the phenomenon is associated, which immediately increased the status of the scientific nature of psychological research. Various measurement operations have been implemented in test trials . which turned into a specific method of psychological science. Tests are widely used in applied psychology. In scientific research, they can be used only as an additional measuring procedure due to the dynamic nature of their substantive and cultural validity.
The biggest disadvantage of all methods used in psychological science is the impossibility of repeating the results in the manifestation of individual human psychology. Reproducibility of the results of a physical experiment as an indicator of the scientific evidence of open laws in the psychological study of individual psychology is impossible. This is the main paradox of human psychology as a special phenomenon, in the study of which the principles of physical experiment are not completely applicable. This circumstance suggests the development of a special methodology and methods of psychological cognition, close to the essence of psychological phenomena, which all the time change their formal appearance in the processes of transformation of the body-mental potential realized in the joint subject-practical activity of people. The main moments of this process are the patterns of reincarnation of the products of ideal mental activity into a certain result of the objectified reality presented in the products of human activity and the changed qualitative characteristics of human psychology.
For this, special methods of studying the psychology of man as the integrity of his psychic organization must be developed in psychological science. Among such methods, BG Ananiev called the analysis of the products of human creativity, the biographical method, the method of modeling human functions, the method of genetic and structural interpretation as generalizing the results of empirical studies. Empirical research in psychology should be designed according to the methodology of complex human studies and differential psychology.
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