Problem situations as the basis for problem learning
The problem situation characterizes a certain mental state of the student, which occurs during the performance of the task, for which there is no ready-made means and which requires the mastering of new knowledge about the subject, the methods or conditions for its implementation. The condition for the emergence of a problematic situation is the need to disclose a new relationship, property, or mode of action.
The problem situation includes three main components:
1) the need to perform such an action, in which there is a cognitive need for a new unknown relation, method or condition of action;
2) unknown, which must be disclosed in the emerging problem situation;
3) the ability of students to perform the assigned task, in analyzing the conditions and discovering the unknown. Neither too difficult nor too easy an assignment will not cause a problem situation.
Types of problem situations , most common in the learning process:
1. A problem situation will be created when there is a discrepancy between the existing knowledge systems of students and new requirements (between old knowledge and new facts, between knowledge of a lower and higher level, between everyday and scientific knowledge);
2. Problem situations arise when there is a need for a diverse choice of systems of available knowledge of the only necessary system, the use of which alone can ensure the correct solution of the proposed problem problem;
3. Problem situations arise for students when they face new practical conditions for using existing knowledge when there is a search for ways to apply knowledge in practice;
4. A problematic situation arises if there is a contradiction between the theoretically possible way of solving the problem and the practical impossibility or inexpediency of the chosen method, as well as between the practically achieved result of the assignment and the absence of a theoretical justification;
5. Problem situations when solving technical problems arise when there is no direct correspondence between the schematic image and the design of the technical device;
6. Problem situations are created by the fact that there is an objective contradiction between the static nature of the images themselves and the need to read dynamic processes in them.
Rules for creating problem situations
To create a problem situation, you need the following:
1. A practical or theoretical task must be set before the student, in the performance of which he must discover new knowledge or actions to be learned. Thus it is necessary to observe such conditions:
- the task is based on the knowledge and skills that the student owns;
- the unknown that needs to be discovered is the general pattern to be mastered, the general mode of action, or some general conditions for performing the action;
- the execution of a problem task should cause the learner to need a learned knowledge.
2. The problem task offered to the student must correspond to his intellectual abilities.
3. The problem assignment should precede the explanation of the material to be learned.
4. As problem tasks can serve as: a) training tasks; b) questions; c) practical tasks, etc.
However, it is impossible to confuse a problem assignment and a problem situation. Problem assignment itself is not a problematic situation, it can cause a problematic situation only under certain conditions.
5. The same problem situation can be caused by different types of tasks.
6. The resulting problem situation should be formulated by the teacher by pointing the student to the reasons for not fulfilling the assigned practical training task or the impossibility of explaining to them some or other demonstrated facts.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Problem LearningProblem training is aimed at independent search for learners of new knowledge and modes of action, and also involves consistent and purposeful promotion of cognitive problems for students, resolving which, under the guidance of the teacher, they actively learn new knowledge. Consequently, it provides a special type of thinking, the depth of belief, the strength of the assimilation of knowledge and their creative application in practical activities. In addition, it contributes to the formation of motivation to achieve success, develops the thinking abilities of students.
Problem training, to a lesser extent than other types of training, is applicable in the formation of practical skills. It takes a lot of time to assimilate the same amount of knowledge compared to other types of learning.
Despite the identified shortcomings, to date, problem training is promising. The point is that with the development of market relations, all the structures of society in one way or another move from the mode of functioning (which was more characteristic of the Soviet period of the development of the country) to the development regime. The driving force behind any development is overcoming the corresponding contradictions. And the overcoming of these contradictions is always connected with certain abilities, which in psychology are usually called reflexive abilities. They assume the ability to adequately assess the situation, identify the causes of difficulties and problems in activities (professional, personal), and plan and carry out special activities to overcome these difficulties (contradictions). These abilities are one of the basic for a modern specialist. They are not given lectures and stories. They are grown & quot ;. So, the educational process needs to be organized in such a way as to "grow" these abilities in future specialists. Consequently, the educational process should simulate the process of the emergence and overcoming of contradictions, according to the educational content. These requirements, in our opinion, are the most relevant to today's problematic education. The ideas of problem training have been implemented in developmental learning systems.
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