The problem of objectifying human psychology is connected with the answer to the question of the representation of the ideal reality (the inner world of man) in the external forms of its existence (objects of the external world). The problem of correlation between the inner (psychic) ​​and external (objectified manifestations of human psychology) is most often explained in the logic of philosophical dualism, and in experimental psychology is explored on the principles of psychophysical parallelism.

All historical attempts of experimental psychology to establish causal (cause-effect) connections between the mental and physical properties of a person through the correlation calculus of probabilistic coincidences do not inspire confidence because of the different qualities of the properties compared (mental and physical). This leads to the absurdity of interpreting empirical facts in cases of correlation of the same physical properties of the nervous system with different psychological qualities of a person and the forms of their manifestation. For example, with a strong type of nervous system, there can be both a good and an evil person, both intelligent and stupid. Qualitative differences in the mental and physical properties of the body and the psyche are predetermined by their functioning according to the various laws of the vital activity of the organism and the psyche. Therefore, they can not be in a cause-effect relationship. Their participation can be detected only as necessary conditions for coexistence without a causal relationship between them.

The solution to this problem must be sought in the logic of philosophical monism and in holistic forms of manifestation of mental properties as psychological reality in empirical studies through the analysis of the objectified forms of their existence. Holistic manifestations of mental properties are comprehended in terms of the psychological qualities of man. For example, kind, intelligent, strong-willed, etc. These qualities are revealed to observers in the objectivized forms of behavior and activity of the subject. It is these forms that become the objects of empirical study of human psychology (the subject of psychological cognition).

The solution to this problem presupposes the differentiation and integration of the object, objects and subjects of human mental activity in the contexts of its interaction with the world of nature, things, people and themselves. This is of paramount importance to the definition of problem fields of empirical research in human psychology and modeling

research procedures, where the psychological reality is reproduced in the relevant forms of its existence.

Objectivation of human psychology in the process of mental reflection

The psychology of man as the quality of the subject of interaction with the world of things, people and himself is revealed in a number of complicated processes of this interaction, which leads to a qualitative transformation of mental activity. The historical experience of scientific and psychological cognition allows us to differentiate six levels of transformation mental reflection . each of which is dominated by different qualitative manifestations of the integral mental organization of man.

The first level of the process of mental reflection is accomplished according to the laws of the reflex response of the organism and the psyche in response to physical influences of the objects of the external world. People and animals as carriers of the psyche in this process are considered among other objects of interaction. The result of this interaction is analyzed within the object-object paradigm according to the logic of the physical experiment, where objects are the object form of their material properties. The object and the object in the physical experiment coincide and belong to the same class of phenomena. Within the framework of this paradigm, on the site of the psyche the properties of the nervous system are considered - one of the body systems, that is, the relationships between two physical realities, the object of action and the nervous system of the organism are studied. At the same time, the following questions arise: Where is the psyche? What does it refer to? In the form of what it appears for scientific analysis?

In a psychological experiment, objects of cognition are the material shell of the subject content of the psyche, its objectified carriers, the form of the existence of human psychology, which can vary within the same envelope. The fillability of the object (the form of existence of the psychic) ​​by the psychological content depends on the subject of mental activity, whose role in the study of the process of mental reflection is leveled as a hindrance in the study of object-object relations. Researchers working in this paradigm abstract from the role of the subject in the process of mental reflection for the sake of following the principle of objectivity of scientific cognition, by which the rules of physical experiment are implied. Here the logic of psychological cognition, which until now is not understood in the methodology of psychological science, is constantly replaced by the logic of physical cognition, which has the exclusive right to science. The psychological content in this paradigm is pulled through the interpretation of the physical properties of the nervous system, since in the experimental procedure it is not represented in the form of measurable variables (dependent or independent). We can say that the psychology of a person in the paradigm of a physical experiment is studied without a psychological fact, which can be concluded only in direct responses of subjects (subjects), which are replaced by responses of the nervous system, which is not the same thing.

Precisely when analyzing the individual responses of subjects to the same object of impact, subjective deviations were found in the results of mental reflection, despite the person's role in this process, and the expectation reproducibility of this response in constant parameters. This fact led to skepticism about the possibilities of the objective method in psychological research. But despite this, psychological research in the mainstream of the objective paradigm continues with deliberately dubious results, if we continue to look at them in the logic of the physical experiment.

The logic psychological cognition is different. It must come from the interest in individual deviations of subjects from the average trend. According to this logic, the subjectivity and subject as its carrier are of interest in the subject field of a psychological experiment. The subject in this process is an objectivator of his subjectivity in external forms of manifestation of his activity, in which the response to the effects of objects of the environment and his own organism varies. As objects of psychological cognition become objectified forms of subjectivity. Among them, at the level of mental reflection, one should study involuntary reactions bodily movements , automated actions , habits patterns and behaviors , style of activity. These are already formed and not fully realized responses of individuals. It is in them that the psychological content of a person is concluded, in which the subjective potential of his psychic organization is integrally represented. This potential is a psychological mirror of mental reflection, which should represent the model of a person's mental organization. The role of the subject in the process of mental reflection is limited to his involuntary responses in the above-mentioned forms of objectification.

The involuntary responses of mental reflection are, first of all, filled with affective content , which manifests itself in a positive or negative reaction to the object of interaction (stimulus). Ambivalent emotions in this process are transformed into attitudes of rejection, which are manifested, for example, in dogs in wagging by a tail or growl, and in a person - in the form of showing disposition or aggression. Among the involuntary forms of the manifestation of affective content, the facial expression and pantomime of bodily movements comes to the fore of the subjective response. These forms must be recorded and measured in a psychological experiment. The subject is difficult to control, so they are closest to the true psychology of man. But the most important thing in this construct of mental reflection between the stimulus and the reaction appears the third link - affective response , which represents the content of the mental component in the processes of interaction between a person or an animal and with the objects of the external world , and with the systems of your body.

Thus, according to the logic of monism, it is in the forms of objectification of psychological content that an integral synthesis of the internal and external, the object and the subject, the form and content of human psychology takes place in the process of mental reflection of objective reality. The role of the subject in this process is gradually activated by his ability to regulate his responses to external and internal stimuli, which is manifested, for example, in the delay (inhibition) of the reaction due to the detrimental consequences for the life of the individual. The affective link is the primary regulator of the ecological relations between the organism and the environment, the mechanism of psychological selection, for example, the properties of the poor, about its harm or harmlessness here and now.

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