Programs Associated With Behavior Modification Psychology Essay

This papers objective is never to address all the programs associated with patterns modification, But simply to determine the some of the types of behavior modification programs available to probation and parole specialists. This report protects the basics of behavior changes, the idea behind it, as well as cognitive habit modification. It touches on the utilization of evidence-based practices, motivational interviewing, as well as some of the types of programs available. Such as for example Boot Camps, Community Correction Centers, Day Reporting Centers, substance abuse programs, and lastly it talks about the successful Expectation program in the status of Hawaii.

Understanding behavior modification commences with the understanding of what is called Learning Theory. Learning Theory generally focuses on Ivan Pavlov's traditional conditioning and B. F. Skinner's operant fitness. Both ideas relay on the normal opinion that either through a stimulus or a strategic reinforcement, learned behavior could be transformed.

Under the opinion of traditional or reflex fitness, the required learning final result is achieved through the creation of any conditioned response. Pavlov was able to make a conditioned response in pups by associating the calling of your bell with salivation. Each and every time the pups were fed, a bell was rung. Soon the puppies were conditioned to anticipate food when the bell rang irrespective of any food being present. You must understand that Pavlov was actually learning the digestive function of pups, when he uncovered that his canines salivated when anyone strolled within a lab jacket on. What he learned was that whenever they fed the dogs, the individual was using a lab. Pavlov implemented up with the thought of buzzing a bell every time they were heading to nourish the pet dogs, the puppies soon discovered to affiliate the bell calling to them getting food. Hence, "reflex" fitness.

Although loosely related, operant conditioning is different from classical conditioning, for the reason that a stimulus is not given for a conditioned response. Instead, operant fitness applies an incentive or a punishment after certain conducts are observed. B. F. Skinner believed that behaviors in an individual were the result of contact with rewards and punishments within an environment. Operand fitness happens when an dog learns to perform particular behaviors to be able to secure a fundamentally rewarding stimulus. B. F. Skinner's work was in neuro-scientific psychology. He conditioned a pigeon to raise his head above a certain point to be able to receive food. To put it yet another way, it is when a trained dog consistently comes when called in order to obtain a treat or praise. The problem to this type of learning is that after a while the dog needs a treat each and every time he comes when called. When he no more will get the treat, with any type of regularity, the response becomes less and less recurrent this is named "operant extinction. " Generally, when we take part in behavior that no more "takes care of, " we find ourselves less inclined to behave in that way again. Adding it other ways, let us say we wear a wristwatch on a regular basis, we do not observe that we consider it often. Now if you forgot that wristwatch we still take a look at our wrist, to start to see the time, after a while of not using the watch we look less and less at our wrist for enough time. That is operant extinction.

The most behavior adjustment in parole and probation is dependant on the key points of operant conditioning. Therefor I am going to discuss operant condition more comprehensive. Through operant conditioning, an association is manufactured between a tendencies and a consequence for that tendencies. Quite simply, behavior changes uses systematic reinforcement to be able to encourage the learning of your desired tendencies. Operant conditioning, works whether it is through support or through consequence. Anything that boosts a behavior is considered reinforcement and whatever decreases behavior is known as punishment. The guarantee or likelihood of a reward causes an increase in patterns, but operant conditioning can also be used to decrease a behavior as well. The reduction of your unwanted behavior thru the utilization of a consequence is often what is utilized in bringing up children, along with the prize system or the positive encouragement. Unfortunately, frequently than not the focus of attention is on the kid thru negative reinforcement, rather than the positive support. It's the idea or the prospect of punishment, which might lead the kid to a cut down any disruptive manners. Through operant conditioning the surroundings builds the basic repertoire with which we keep our balance, walk, play games, handle tools and tools, speak, write, sail a motorboat, drive a car, or take flight a plane. A big change in the environment-a new car, a fresh friend, a fresh field of interest, a new job, a fresh location-may find us unprepared, but our patterns usually adjusts quickly once we acquire new replies and discard old. (Skinner, 1953)

There are four types of operant fitness: Positive Support, Negative Reinforcement, Punishment, and Extinction. Both Negative and positive Reinforcement strengthen habit while both Punishment and Extinction weaken patterns. (Maricopa Middle for Learning and Training, 1999)

In Positive Encouragement, a particular action is strengthened by the consequence of experiencing a confident condition. For example, a eager rat presses a pub in its cage and will get food. The meals is an optimistic condition for the famished rat. The rat presses the club again, and again gets food. The rat's action of pressing the pub is strengthened by the consequence of getting food.

In Negative Reinforcement, a particular habit is strengthened by the result of stopping or preventing a poor condition. For instance, another a rat is put in a cage and immediately obtains a mild electric surprise on its legs. The great shock is a negative condition for the rat. The rat presses a bar and the great shock halts. The rat receives another shock, presses the bar again, and again the surprise stops. The rat's action of pressing the pub is strengthened by the consequence of stopping the shock.

In Punishment, a particular patterns is weakened by the result of experiencing a negative condition. For instance, another rat presses a bar in its cage and receives a mild electric shock on its toes. The impact is a poor condition for the rat. The rat presses the club again and again receives a surprise. The rat's action of pressing the pub is weakened by the consequence of receiving a great shock.

In Extinction, a particular habit is weakened by the consequence of not experiencing a positive condition or halting a poor condition. For example, a rat presses a pub in its cage and nothing at all happens. Neither a good nor a negative condition is available for the rat. The rat presses the club over and over nothing at all happens. The rat's behavior of pressing the club is weakened by the consequence of not experiencing anything positive or preventing anything negative.

The mission statements of most corrections agencies focus on two main jobs: retaining offenders accountable to conditions (conformity), and stimulating positive behavior change (rehabilitation). (Walters, Clark, Gingerich, & Meltzer, 2007) Methods include increasing someone's opportunities and capacity for positive actions (e. g. , skills training, education, career) or assisting the person be successful at some new habit (e. g. , drug treatment). Many shifts in correctional beliefs have occurred over time. During some intervals, corrections specialists have emphasized deterrence strategies; during others, they have got relied more on treatment and constructional strategies. No period has emphasized one strategy only; the difference has been in the amount to that they relied on one or the other. (Walters, Clark, Gingerich, & Meltzer, 2007) Among the number of offender programs made to reintegrate offenders into culture, the ones that are most common, seek to address the offenders' thought process, their reasoning and their associated habits through what's termed "cognitive behavioral" techniques. Cognitive behaviorism can be an approach that can be applied learning theory to mental happenings like thoughts and feelings. Cognitive habit programs train people new ways of thinking, and in so doing, help them to overcome various problems that stem from dysfunctional or bad thinking. Cognitive action techniques are greatly considered offering appreciable advantages over more traditional kinds of treatment. Because this term is so wide-ranging it is difficult to define precisely, but it involves helping offenders to face up to the results of their activities, to comprehend their motives, and develop new ways of controlling their patterns. (Vennard, Sugg, & Hedderman, 1997)

Cognitive behaviorism is not really a separate mental health theory nor is it a method, this can be a term given to a range of mediations or interventions derived from the next three psychological ideas, Behaviorism, Cognitive theory, and Friendly learning theory.

Behaviorism, which strains the role of external or environmental factors that shape an individual's actions so that, for offenders, for example, encouragement from peers and/or the lack of immediate punishment from authority statistics rein forces unlawful behavior

Cognitive theory can be involved with the development of a person's thought processes. In addition, it talks about how these thought procedures influence how exactly we understand and connect to the earth.

Sociable learning theory stresses the importance of watching and modeling the actions, attitudes, and psychological reactions of others. Thus, it focuses on learning by observation and modeling.

Cognitive behavioral modification assumes that offenders are formed by their environment and they have didn't acquire certain cognitive skills or have learned inappropriate ways of behaving. The remedy assumes that most people can become conscious of their own thoughts and conducts and then make positive changes to them. Someone's thoughts tend to be the result of experience, and tendencies is often inspired and prompted by these thoughts. (Clark, 2010) The Cognitive behavioral approach does not attribute the causes of criminal behavior entirely to individual or psychological factors. It also takes into account the cultural conditions, which influence individual development, and it is not incompatible with sociological explanations of criminal activity, such as those, which view such tendencies as purchased from influential delinquent peer communities. (Vennard, Sugg, & Hedderman, 1997) Since it is considered that such these manners are learned rather than inherited, offender programs that are cognitive centered are intended to teach offenders to handle up from what they did, to understand their motives and also to develop new coping strategies and means of controlling their tendencies. Cognitive behavioral therapy has been found effective with juvenile and adult offenders; element abusing and violent offenders; and probationers, prisoners and parolees. In most cognitive behavioral therapy programs, offenders improve skills, means-ends problem fixing, critical reasoning, moral reasoning, cognitive style, self-control, impulse management and self-efficacy. (Clark, 2010)

Evidence-based practice (EBP) illustrates the key role that agents have in offender end result. For a treatment or program to be called information based, its success must be substantiated by a measurable final result (e. g. , reduced recidivism, increased general public safety). In the past, rehabilitation was mostly the domain of mental medical researchers, but EBP emphasizes that frontline personnel, such as probation and parole officers, also have the possibility to effect the change process. (Walters, Clark, Gingerich, & Meltzer, 2007) Chronic actions are not settled with some fixed amount or length of time of treatment. Much like substance abuse and mental health treatment, for example, an interim goal is to activate and retain the offender in treatment at an appropriate level of care and monitoring before offender can effectively manage his / her own care and behavior. For many chronic offenders continuing care spans the period of at least six to nine months of intense treatment accompanied by an interval of often longer aftercare. (Warren, 2007)

The six key points of an efficient EBP are

1. THE CHANCE Principle- The risk process of effective treatment refers to the chance or probability that an offender will reoffend. It also identifies the chance degree of those offenders who will be the most appropriate goals of recidivism. Risk in this framework does not make reference to the seriousness of the offense or the chance that an offender will incur technological violations, but to the likelihood that the offender will commit another offense.

2. THE NECESSITY Rule- Offenders typically have many needs, only a few of which are associated with the risk of criminal behavior. The necessity principle of EBP identifies the most likely needs of offenders to target. Effective programs must focus on their "criminogenic needs", i. e. , those prices, attitudes, or behaviors of the offender that are most carefully associated with the odds of committing offense. The criminogenic needs most predictive of the likelihood of criminal action are

Low self-control, i. e. , impulsive behavior

Anti-social personality, i. e. , callousness, insufficient empathy

Anti-social values, i. e. , disassociation from the law-abiding community

Criminal peers

Substance abuse

Dysfunctional family

3. Usage of Risk/Needs Analysis Instruments-Determination of the amount of risk of reoffending that an offender presents, and of the offender's criminogenic needs, requires a careful assessment of relevant information about each offender. Often, determinations of risk are based mostly solely on the nature of the criminal offense devoted and prior criminal background. Although both these factors are reputable risk factors, especially prior criminal history, they aren't a sufficient basis for a precise assessment. Offender characteristics are usually more predictive of whether an individual will probably commit a future crime than criminal offense characteristics.

4. THE PROCEDURE and Responsivity Key points- The procedure theory of EBP combines the study results that cognitive-behavioral programs rooted in social-learning theory will be the most effective in minimizing recidivism. A specific set of implications, both positive and negative, is helpful to people in expanding their sense of self-control, of responsibility because of their own manners. Related research on real human behavior indicates that folks respond better, and maintain learned behaviors longer, when contacted with "carrots" somewhat than "sticks, " rewards rather than punishments.

5. Determination and Trust- Determination to change on the part of the offender can be an important starting place for behavioral change. Behavior change is only going to take place if the offender decides to do so. Effective treatment professionals and probation officers are therefore often trained in -motivational interviewing- (MI), a couple of interpersonally sensitive marketing communications techniques that effectively enhance intrinsic inspiration for behavioral change by aiding clients explore and fix their ambivalence in an optimistic way.

6. Integration of Treatment and Community-Based Sanctions- Effectively utilize rehabilitation and treatment programs to reduce offender recidivism and promote general population safety. Research evidently demonstrates that in the lack of treatment, neither consequence, nor incarceration, nor every other criminal sanction reduces recidivism, beyond the time of confinement, restraint, or surveillance. In fact, consequence and sanctions raise the odds of recidivism slightly, even though controlling for respective offender risk levels. Community-corrections programs based on EBP are not an "option" to appropriate abuse; they can frequently be combined with appropriate consequence. (Warren, 2007)

Motivational interviewing grew out of the substance abuse and craving treatment fields in the 1980s. In those days, research began to show that the widely accepted confrontational methods to dealing with addicts simply weren't successful. (Walters, Clark, Gingerich, & Meltzer, 2007) Instead of confrontation, MI is a cooperation or collaboration that is formed between your therapist and the person with the cravings, predicated on the addict's perspective and their encounters. This view of MI differences with early views on interventions. Previously, the idea was to confront the person with the cravings, and impose society's viewpoint about the person's addictive patterns. Today, this collaboration or partnership has the effect of building a rapport between your counselor and the individual with the dependency, and allows the person with the dependency to build up trust on the counselor, which was difficult in a confrontational atmosphere of days gone by. This will not imply that the counselor automatically agrees with the individual with the dependency. Although the person with the habit and their counselor may see things differently, the restorative process is focused on mutual understanding, not the counselor being right and the individual with the habit being wrong. A person is more likely to check out through with patterns he believes he has freely chosen and is convinced he can accomplish.

MI is a person-centered approach to fostering change by supporting a person explore and deal with ambivalence. Instead of using exterior pressure, MI searches for ways to access internal drive for change. It borrows from client-centered counseling in its focus on empathy, optimism, and respect for customer choice. MI also attracts from self-perception theory, which says a person becomes more or less committed to an action predicated on the verbal position he or she will take. Thus, an offender who talks about the benefits of change is more likely to make that change, whereas an offender who argues and defends the position quo is much more likely to continue his present patterns. (Walters, Clark, Gingerich, & Meltzer, 2007)

Although MI advises some tangible strategies, it is best regarded as a method of conversation that follows these basic principles

Express empathy. Empathy is about good rapport and a confident working environment. It is an attempt to understand the offender's mindset, even although agent may not buy into the offender's point of view. Empathy also consists of an attempt to draw out concerns and known reasons for change from the offender, rather than relying on the agent's (or court's/board's) plan as the sole persuasion strategy.

Roll with resistance. Rolling with level of resistance means finding different ways to act in response when the offender troubles the need for change. It is normal to own mixed feelings when considering change. Therefore, the agent will not claim with the offender.

Develop discrepancy. Discrepancy is the feeling that one's current behavior has gone out of brand with one's goals or principles. Rather than informing the offender why he should change, the agent asks questions and makes assertions to help the offender identify his own reasons for change.

Support self-efficacy. A person is more likely to check out through with patterns that they believe that they have widely chosen and feels they can complete. Therefore, the agent remains optimistic, reminds the offender of personal advantages and past successes, and affirms all work toward change. (Walters, Clark, Gingerich, & Meltzer, 2007)

The success of motivational interviewing is dependant on the fact that an offender that who discusses the advantages of change is more likely to make that change, whereas an offender who argues and defends the position quo is much more likely to continue his present tendencies.

Shock Incarceration programs, popularly known as "boot camps, " are one of the very most publicized intermediate sanction programs. Since the 1980's population has looked for ways to reduce the cost of housing offenders. Any office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) thought that they had the response for teenager offenders with juvenile shoe camps. By 1996, 48 camps were in operation in several state governments. Congress had authorized $24. 5 million for the claims to open shoe camps. By 1995, 52 juvenile shoe camps were in operation housing around 4, 500 juveniles. (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Avoidance)

These boot camps have five main purposes





Cost control.

Programs vary in proportions, length, location, control of entrance, the level of post-program guidance and in the amount of training, education, or treatment encoding provided. All are relatively simple (the majority are three to four calendar months) and are designed for offenders who have not yet offered time in circumstances prison. The programs get on the model of a military-style of boot camp. They stress rigid discipline, obedience, regimentation, drill and wedding ceremony, and physical conditioning, sometimes including manual labor. Impact programs participants are anticipated to learn self-discipline, teamwork and develop improved upon self-respect. Program members are housed independently from the general prison society, although in some programs they are really within look and earshot of basic population inmates. Quite often these programs also incorporate drug and liquor guidance, GED requirements, and anger management programs, public skill building, etc.

Community corrections centre are non-prison sanctions that are enforced on convicted adults or adjudicated juveniles by way of a court instead of a prison word or by way of a parole board following release from jail. Community corrections programs are usually controlled by probation and parole businesses and the programs range from general community guidance as well as day confirming centers, halfway properties and other personal facilities, work release, and other community programs. The centers alleviate the move for parolees and inmates who are nearing release. The centers give a organised environment and a number of supportive services, including counselling, job assistance and medication and alcohol treatment. Community-based residential settings offering structure, supervision, surveillance, drug/alcohol treatment, educational and vocational programs, employment counselling, socialization and life skills programs, and community work changeover, and/or kinds of treatment and programs. Cover stability is definitely related to success for persons who are on probation and parole. Experts have debated whether homelessness contributes to arrests and vice versa, but most agree that procuring offenders housing lessens recidivism and boosts offender compliance. Housing stability has been related to stopping relapse for individuals with a substance abuse history. Reentry projects that contain helped create cover options for offenders are finding that obtaining cover is related to occupation, sobriety and other specific assets. The power of individuals to acquire cover, sobriety and occupation builds personal resiliency and community resources. (Shilton & Vail, 2005)

Common reentry services include



Work assistance

Peer mentoring or case management

Physical and mental health services

Family reunification

Over the previous two decades, claims have turned to community corrections programs to manage more offenders locally in an effort to reduce jail and prison populations, reduce recidivism, and reduce costs within the unlawful justice system. One kind of community corrections program known as a day confirming middle (DRC) has gained recognition as an alternative to incarceration as evidenced by the speedy increase in the number of programs operating countrywide. DRC's bring groups of parolees along from within a municipality or greater geographic area for guidance, services, and encoding, and requires them to spend significant amounts of time together on a regular basis. (Boyle, Ragusa, Lanterman, & Marcus, 2011) DRCs are non-residential facilities offering offenders rehabilitative coding and daily supervision. Offenders assigned to DRCs generally are accountable to the service during daytime hours and return home at night when programming is complete. Typical DRC's can save firms on average of about $1, 000 per offender, in comparison to the price tag on incarceration. (Jones & Lacey, 1999)

To assist in reentry and reintegration, treatment programming open to offenders can include educational and/or vocational training, job placement services, drug abuse education and treatment, and life-skills training, among others.

DRC programs offer a range of services designed to raise the success of the parolees' reintegration into the community and parole modification. The assistance include, but aren't limited by

Transitional/sober living environments (casing shall not exceed 6 months and is provided to ten-percent of the parolees dished up)

Person and group counseling

Random breathalyzer and urinalysis testing

Substance abuse education

Anger management

Domestic violence prevention and awareness

Educational/GED preparation

Job readiness and job search assistance

Cognitive and life skills development

Budgeting and money management


Commonly as an ailment of probation or parole, offenders must take part in community-based substance abuse treatment programs. The most frequent substances of maltreatment reported by probation or parole admissions were liquor, marijuana, and methamphetamines; several half reported more than one substance of maltreatment at admission. (DRUG ABUSE and Mental Health Services Supervision, 2011) Corresponding to recent records, 60 to 80 percent of jail and jail inmates, parolees, probationers, and arrestees were consuming drugs or alcohol during the payment of their offense, committed the criminal offense to support a drug dependency, were incurred with a drug- or alcohol-related criminal offense, or are regular substance users. (Marlowe, 2003)

Residential or In-Patient Programs usually need a dedication of at least 30 days and typically include room and panel. Through intensive counseling and group connections, addicts/alcoholics understand how to get back control of their lives using key recovery tools. Often, clients who have attempted outpatient treatment programs but have in the end relapsed back to drug and liquor use, or have found outpatient programs difficult to complete, achieve success in a personal program. Clients who require detoxification services credited to concerns about drawback also reap the benefits of residential programs, as cleansing services tend to be included as part of a residential treatment program.

The most effective programs regularly keep an eye on clients' substance use through arbitrary breathalyzer assessments and urinalyses. Drug-free test outcomes are fulfilled with rewards, such as reduced monitoring requirements, reduced unlawful sanctions, or goods and services that support a beneficial lifestyle. Drug-positive results, on the other hands, are met with such sanctions as lack of privileges, increased guidance requirements, or a short go back to detention. Most medication and liquor programs follow the 12 steps of Alcoholics Anonymous.

Drug Courts are a court supervised, treatment oriented program that targets non-violent participants whose major problems stem from substance abuse. The Drug Judge Program is a voluntary program, which includes regular court looks before the Medicine Court Judge. Treatment includes medication testing, specific and group counseling, and regular attendance at 12-Step conferences. The probation officer and the treatment team could also help with obtaining education and skills assessments and will provide recommendations for vocational training, education, and/or job position services. This program span, is usually dependant on the participant's progress, however should be no less than one year. Successful completion and "graduation" from the Drug Court docket Program may bring about having probation terminated early on.

Hawaii's Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE), launched in 2004, by First Circuit Judge Steven Alm, is an experimental probation program that emphasizes the delivery of "swift and certain" consequence whenever a probationer violates conditions of probation. The Expectation program has seen amazing success, and has gained the interest of several areas, just as one cost saving option in their state governments. The Expectation program has a strong theoretical basis. That swiftness and certainty outperform seriousness in the management of offending is an idea that dates back to 1764 to Cesar Beccaria's, On Offences and Punishment.

The formula H. O. P. E. follows for managing hard-drug utilization in the criminally energetic population is simple: (Hawkin, H. O. P. E. for Reform, 2007)

Weekly randomized testing (or twice weekly scheduled tests), to remove any "safe home window" for undetected medicine use.

Fixed sanctions over a set plan: Less than two times in jail is adequate, as long as enforcement is reliable, with phrase length increasing gradually for successive violations.

A formal caution to the probationer in open up court, placing him on notice that violations have repercussions.

As short a period as is possible between violations and sanctions. (For offenders with salary jobs, the first sanction could be deferred to the next weekend. )

Quick service of bench warrants on those who abscond.

Treatment services for individuals who prove struggling to comply on their own.

Under Wish, probationers are given a color code at the alert hearing. Every morning, they must call a hot collection to listen to which color has been chosen for that day. If it is their color, they need to show up at the probation office before 2 p. m. for a medicine test. When a HOPE probationer fails to appear for the medicine test, a bench warrant is given and offered immediately. A probationer who fails the arbitrary medication test is immediately caught and within 72 hours is helped bring before a judge. If the probationer is found to possess violated the terms of probation, he or she is immediately sentenced to a brief jail stay. Typically, the word is several days, servable on the weekend if the probationer is utilized; sentences increase for successive violations. Violating terms of probation directs a consistent communication to probationers about personal responsibility and accountability. (Hawkin & Kleiman, 2009)

HOPE has proven itself to be effective. As the program isn't perfect, its offenders experienced a better background than those in regular probation. NIJ-funded analysts evaluated Desire to determine if it performed and results were positive. (Hawkin & Kleiman, Taking care of Drug Involved Probationers with Swift and Certain Sanctions: Evaluating Hawaii's HOPE, 2009) Compared to probationers in a control group, after twelve months the HOPE probationers were

Fifty-five percent less likely to be imprisoned for a new crime.

Seventy-two percent less likely to use drugs.

Sixty-one percent less likely to skip appointments with the supervisory official.

Fifty-three percent less inclined to have their probation revoked.

In Summary, this statement only touches on the basics of Behavior alterations used in probation and parole today. There is much more to the concept of behavior changes than meets the attention. While the success of behavior modification is not really a new concept. Lately there have various kinds of programs which have success, but still many more the have failed. Overall the idea of modifying the tendencies of offenders, is encouraging and generally in most case been successful at reducing recidivsim and the price to the unlawful justice system has been greatly reduced by such programs as discussed in this report.

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