Projective complementary techniques (additive)
Additive methods include projective methods for completing sentences (stories), stories, stories. They belong to a large group of diagnostic tools based on the principle of verbal completion. These techniques are widely used to solve different problems, identify various characteristics of the personality. The initial words in the sentences depend on the investigated area of the personality and are formulated in such a way as to cause answers that are relevant to it. This flexibility is one of the advantages of this technique.
An example of such a technique is the "Blank of unfinished sentences" J. Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank. On includes 40 beginnings of sentences that the subject should complete, expressing, according to the instructions, his "sincere opinions". Each completion is assessed on a seven-point scale in accordance with the detected degree of fitness/inability to reality. For the purposes of standardized analysis of responses, the guide to the methodology provides samples for each scale graduation. The sum of the answers received is used to assess the fitness level of the individual. An analysis of the content of answers provides additional information on the areas and situations in which it has difficulty in adapting.
One of the most famous techniques of this type used for counseling purposes in our country is the Methodology of unfinished proposals D. Sachs and S. Lei (Sentence Completion Method).
Stimulus material methods - 60 unfinished phrases, which are divided into 15 topics (attitude towards the father, attitude to yourself, fears and fears, attitude towards friends, feelings of guilt, etc.). These topics relate to the four areas of relationships: family, sex, interpersonal relationships, self-perception.
The methodology can be used both individually and in group form. In the case of a group form, the subject receives a blank with unfinished phrases, where he should enter the completion. The analysis is subjected to the contents of the completion of the three criteria: "no noticeable disorders," "small disorders", "serious disorders." With this method of diagnosis, a number of important indicators are lost, in particular time thinking, mood, attitude to the survey, comments and emotional response to individual phrases.
With an individual form, the diagnosis procedure consists of three stages. At the first stage with the subject, an associative experiment is first conducted in order for him to become familiar with the examination procedure. Then the psychodiagnostic reads unfinished phrases to him, inviting them to come up with endings and say them out loud. The endings record psychodiagnostics. In addition, it captures the latency of responses.
In the second stage, psychodiagnostics offers the subject to rank 15 cards, each of which contains one of the topics to which the proposals relate, on two grounds - according to the degree of disadvantage and the degree of significance of the topic.
At the third stage, a conversation is held with the subject in order to clarify the unclear answers, clarify the modality and the reasons for choosing those or other accomplishments.
The analysis of the received diagnostic information is carried out taking into account both qualitative and formal (quantitative) results. Quantitative include the average latency period of responses, the average latency periods for each of the 15 topics, the number of problem completions by the criteria of time and conflict, the percentage of personal intolerance. The result of their analysis is the identification of autonomous affective complexes and unfavorable spheres of personality relations, the differentiation of habitual and hidden unfavorable spheres, an assessment of the degree of their importance and awareness, as well as the interrelations between them.
Another method, built on the principles of verbal completion, was developed by the Belgian psychologist J. Nutten. This is a method of motivational induction designed to diagnose the time perspective of the future.
The temporal perspective of the future is understood by Nyutten as the space of motivation, the function of the constituent elements of motivational objects that determine its depth and structure. In order for the subject to be able to fully and freely express his goals and motives, he chose for his methodology very sparingly and vaguely formulated those parts of the proposals that should be completed ("I want ...", "I aspire to ... "I do not want ..."). Such unfinished proposals ask only a general setting for the formulation of goals, "induce motives". Therefore they are called inducers & quot ;. Used as positive ( I want ... ), and as negative ( I do not want ...) inductors. Their complete set includes 60 phrases (40 positive and 20 negative), short ones consist of 40 or 30 inducers. Nutten recommends using the technique from the age of 12 years.
To analyze the results, he uses two codes - temporal (temporal) and code of analysis of the content of motivation. They are offered conditional signs (symbols) for encoding motivation. Temporal coding is that each event, the goal is assigned its own timestamp, which depends on the average & quot ;, normal for a certain social group of temporary localization, because the time experience of each individual is formed in the process of its socialization and depends on "social time".
For the temporal code, Nutten proposed using two types of symbols - in the categories of the calendar time periods (day, week, etc.) and in the categories of periods of social and biological life of the person (period of study, productive life, third age). >
The temporal code allows us to estimate the depth of the temporal perspective of an individual using the drawing of the "temporary profile", when the corresponding time indices are plotted along the abscissa axis and the percentage of utterances with the corresponding time indices along the ordinate axis.
Using the content analysis code makes it possible to evaluate the concrete content of a person's motivation by describing motives (goals) as the object of motivation II by the specifics of the relationship established between the subject in relation to the given object. Nutten, on the basis of his rich empirical experience, singled out 10 main categories used to encode the content side of motivation (one or another aspect of the personality of the subject himself, his self-development, goals formulated for other people, etc.).
However, if the proposed categories are not suitable for evaluating any statement of the subject, you can, in Nutten's opinion, introduce additional categories.
To interpret the data obtained on the basis of the analysis of the content of motivation, Nutten proposed to add the number of symbols of each category and count the percentage of the sums received in relation to the total number of statements by the method. This gives an index of the relative importance of each motivational component. There are no psychometric indicators of information.
Projective Impression Techniques
To this group of projective techniques can be attributed to the method of indirect study of the system of self-assessments - KISS (authors - EO Fedotova, E. T. Sokolova). The technique is designed to diagnose certain aspects of the self-consciousness of individuals. The stimulating material of the technique are 10 schematic images of the human face. The mouth was excluded from the face scheme, as, according to the authors' assumption, the line of the mouth shifts the projection from the person's relatively stable to situational characteristics, and its absence increases the uncertainty of the stimulus material. The diagnostic procedure consists in ranking the face images according to a number of criteria set by the psychologist. The first criterion is the degree of comfort for the subject (criterion "like").
Then the subject was to briefly describe the most pleasant (rank 1) and the most unpleasant (rank 10) person. Some of the qualities mentioned in this case were included in the criteria, but which are subsequently ranked. The mandatory criteria include health & quot ;, mind and kindness & quot ;. In conclusion, the subject is asked to arrange the cards (rank) according to the degree of similarity to themselves.
The processing of the results consists in calculating the coefficients of rank correlation between:
by likes and ranking by quality;
- ranking by the looks like me and ranking by quality;
- ranking by the like criterion and the ranking of the is similar to me criterion.
The first series of coefficients shows the relative value of each of the qualities used as ranking criteria. The second set of coefficients gives a scale of self-assessments for these qualities, and the third coefficient reflects the overall degree of acceptance.
Psychometric examinations were conducted on a group of 50 people (of them 20 healthy) at the age of 20-27 years. They showed satisfactory homogeneity and retest reliability (on the healthy group) with a small interval between two diagnostic tests (1-2 weeks), as well as the validity obtained by the method of known groups. However, correlations with the Dembo-Rubinshtein and OSO methods of VV Stalin and SR Pantileev are not significant, which may be explained by the fact that the KISS methodology is aimed at assessing unconscious aspects of self-awareness.
Concluding the chapter, we note that despite criticism of projective diagnostic methods and a number of methodological problems associated with them, studies of their capabilities continue, their psychometric parameters are determined, more rapid methods of analysis are being sought, and application procedures are being improved. New methods are being developed.
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