Projective psychological methods and technologies in qualitative research
As a result of mastering the material of the chapter, students should:
• regulatory requirements for the development, adaptation and use of techniques, the structure of the research process, the principles of psychological research and interpretation of data;
• the main sources and opportunities for the appearance of errors and distortions inherent in the methods of research of personality, activity, group, organization, management system; ways and ways of preventing and compensating them;
be able to
• Orient in the modern scientific concepts of descriptive and experimental psychology, personality and group; independently analyze their methodological and theoretical bases in order to identify and select appropriate methods for a specific psychological study of the problem;
• take into account the influence of factors affecting the variability of empirical data and their interpretation;
• Evaluation of the degree of applicability of specific techniques, the choice of the most appropriate methods of analysis and resolution of psychological problems;
• Developing psychologically sound recommendations to staff and team leaders and organizations.
Constructive projective methods
A subclass of constitutive projective techniques assumes that the subject included in the diagnostic procedure structures, formalizes indeterminate stimuli and gives them some sense. The ink stain test, created by the Swiss psychiatrist G. Rorschach in 1921, is one of the most popular projective techniques of this type with a unique and dramatic history. Having emerged as an experimental technique for the diagnosis of schizophrenia and discredited in the 1960s, today this technique is one of the most informative methods of psychological diagnosis. Inky spots of indeterminate form were used in the clinic and before Rorschach. In interpreting the results, emphasis was placed on the analysis of the content of the responses of associations of subjects. Unlike his predecessors, G. Rorschach proposed a completely new concept, which subsequently determined the unique diagnostic capabilities of his test. Its essence boiled down to the fact that the main focus was not on the subject's associations, but on the processes of recognizing certain objects when perceiving stimuli. The manifestations of impaired perception, reflected in the responses of mentally ill people, were the criteria for differentiating them from healthy ones. Moreover, the features of perception were manifested in the content of the response and in formal characteristics, which included the localization of the object named in the subject in the stimulus, as well as in the characteristics of the stimuli themselves. G. Rorschach revealed such peculiarities of stimuli as the shape or contours of the spot, the color of the spot, and also some of their unusual features that prompted the subjects to formulate answers on the basis of recognition of human movements in them.
The incentives produced by Mr. Rorschach had an unusual property - they were not completely amorphous. Some areas of the spots were more specific along the contours, so that they resemble completely specific objects. This gave grounds to believe that if the mentally ill perceive the well-known objects in a distorted way, they will also give completely different answers when identifying areas of a spot having more defined contours. These features of the stimuli subsequently became the basis for a conceptual justification of the psychodiagnostic nature of the Rorschach test. Unfortunately, G. Rorschach himself could not develop his ideas himself, since he died suddenly from peritonitis in 1922, seven months after the publication of the test.
F. Rorschach was one of the first to note the significant connection between fantasy-like products and personal characteristics. Comparing the clinical characteristics and characteristics of patients' responses, he identified the motor (b-type) and color (7% -type) types of perception. Within the first type, subjects tend to perceive spots in motion, in the images they produce, the dynamic aspect is primarily emphasized. The second type is characterized by the fixation in the answers of the color aspect. The type of perception (or experience) characterizes, respectively, the intravert or extra-intense personality tendencies (K. Young's typology). However, Rorschach believed that extra- and intraverting are not mutually exclusive properties of a person, but qualities that are more or less inherent in any person as individual adaptation mechanisms. Absence or hyper development of one of them leads to accentuation or pathology.
In addition to the introverted or extra-intensive personality types, Rorschach has identified narrowed, for which a small number of responses associated with movement and color, or complete absence of them, and ambiguous associated with a large, but equal number of color & quot ;, and engine answers. These types are associated with certain components of the intellect, affect, character traits and the kind of mental pathology.
Rorschach developed the basic principles of analysis and interpretation of answers, clarified the values of certain indicators, worked out ways of coding, searching pathognomonic indicators, as well as theoretical justification of the methodology. In the most popular version of Rorschach's method, formed under the influence of the research "Ego-psychology" and experiments New Look, the respondent's response is viewed as the result of interaction of the objective properties of the stimulus - on the one hand, and subjective needs and mechanisms of their regulation - on the other. In the light of this approach, the test is aimed primarily at researching the expressive aspect of behavior or the inherent personality of an individual style.
Rorschach test data are interpreted according to the researcher's theoretical guidelines. There are two directions for the development of Rorschach engineering. The first (Swiss and French clinical schools (M. Luzley-Usteri, E. Bohm and others)) is based on the postulates of orthodox psychoanalysis and sees in this method a means of identifying various instinctual drives and their symbolic expression. The second (B. Klopfer, A. Rapaport) - is based on the psychology of the "Ego", experimental studies New Look, where the cognitive personality style is considered as the main category of analysis. In this case, adaptation to a specific stimulus is determined by the intellectual capabilities of the subject and the means at his disposal for controlling and regulating affective life.
Within the framework of the New Look research, incentive structuring is seen as the process and result of the interaction of the "external" and internal factors. Interpretation of stimuli appears to be "categorization" answers, proceeding, on the one hand, from the properties of stimuli, and on the other hand, from subjective needs, affective conflicts, individual cognitive style, etc. The process of structuring an indeterminate stimulus material reflects the formal structure of the inner world of the individual, the inherent way of seeing himself and his social environment.
B. The clopper distinguishes three interconnected personality subsystems that unfold in the individual way of structuring the stimulus: intellect, affect, Ego functions. Each of these subsystems has its own structure. Cognitive activity (intellect) includes intellectual status, type of perception, resistance to emotional influences, productivity, originality, etc. In analyzing the affective sphere , the emotional tone of perception, ways of responding to emotion situations, control of effectiveness, the specifics of self-esteem (acceptance or rejection of oneself and one's own unconscious motives, the possibility of empathy and understanding other people, etc.). Ego - are inherent features of the individual contact with reality: the objectivity of reflection, conflict zones, psychological mechanisms of control and protection.
Such an approach to the analysis of test data allows us to identify the individual characteristics of cognitive activity in their relationship to the affective sphere and the direction of the personality.
Interpretation of a test can include several steps:
1. Depth interpretation depends on the tasks facing the subject, and consists in identifying a number of parameters (type of experience, characteristics of intelligence, etc.), the values of which are calculated from formulas having a source of clinical empirical experience.
2. Correlation of individual indicators of the test with each other and the creation of their complexes ( ensembles patterns) that provide sufficient reasoning for the conclusion.
3. The transition from the description of spheres of personality to the characterization of its integral structure, requiring the qualification of a psychologist, the ability to intuitively synthesize synthetic thinking (E. Bohm, the most famous European scientist who worked with Rorschach's test).
Since the 1930s. interest in Rorschach's test began to grow, he began to gain worldwide popularity.
Five basic approaches have been generated to use this method.
With. Beck and M. Gertz followed the classic Rorschach view and attached great importance to the standardization of testing and data collection.
B. Klopfer based on the psychoanalytic interpretation of the formal characteristics of the response of the subject.
The system of Z. Piotrovsky was focused on the study of patients with organic pathology of the brain.
D. Rapanort and R. Schafer attempted to interpret the content of the answers from the point of view of the psychodynamic personality of the subject.
Q. Holzman constructed the Rorschach test in accordance with the requirements for standard psychometric tools (HIT).
There are similar techniques developed by the type of multiple choices (for example, M. Harrower's research). In the techniques of this modification, changes in the stimulus material are quite significant, which allows them to be considered new tests within the framework of the Rorschach methodology.At present, in the practice of psychodiagnostics, the Rorschach test is used for the vast majority of cases in the D. Exner Integrative System (Exner Comprehensive System) and has become a powerful standardized technique for obtaining a versatile valid information about various aspects of human mental activity. Unfortunately, there was no domestic research work using the Integrative System until 2001.
The integrative method was formed on an empirical basis, all the components of its use were subjected to psychometric analysis with validation, calculation of reliability coefficients and the creation of a regulatory framework. Evaluation of the internal consistency and reliability of reproducing the results revealed that the reliability coefficients of most scales of this system are 0.8 or more. The first version of the new system was published in 1974. Based on it, the method proposed by G. Rorschach turned from an experiment into a test meeting basic psychometric requirements.
In conclusion, it should be noted that constitutive projective methods are most in demand in clinical and production practice.
Also We Can Offer!
- Argumentative essay
- Best college essays
- Buy custom essays online
- Buy essay online
- Cheap essay
- Cheap essay writing service
- Cheap writing service
- College essay
- College essay introduction
- College essay writing service
- Compare and contrast essay
- Custom essay
- Custom essay writing service
- Custom essays writing services
- Death penalty essay
- Do my essay
- Essay about love
- Essay about yourself
- Essay help
- Essay writing help
- Essay writing service reviews
- Essays online
- Fast food essay
- George orwell essays
- Human rights essay
- Narrative essay
- Pay to write essay
- Personal essay for college
- Personal narrative essay
- Persuasive writing
- Write my essay
- Write my essay for me cheap
- Writing a scholarship essay