Projective Structuring Techniques, Rorschach Ink Spots...

Projective structuring techniques

Rorschach Ink Spots Technique

This technique is one of the most popular. Developed by Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach, it was first described in 1921. Although standardized series of ink spots were used by psychologists and earlier to study imagination and other mental functions, G. Rorschach was the first to apply ink stains for the diagnostic study of the personality as a whole. Developing this method, Rorschach experimented with a large number of ink spots, which he presented to various groups of mentally ill. As a result of such clinical observations, those characteristics of responses that could be correlated with various mental illnesses were gradually combined into scorecards. The methods for determining indicators were then worked through additional testing of mentally retarded and normal people, artists, scientists and others with known psychological characteristics. Rorschach proposed basic methods for analyzing and interpreting answers.

In Rorschach's technique, 10 cards are used, on each of which a two-sided symmetrical spot is printed. Five spots are made only in gray-black tones, two contain additional strokes of bright red color, and the other three represent a combination of colors of pastel tops. Tables are presented sequentially from the 1st to the 10th in the standard position indicated on the back. The presentation of Table 1 is accompanied by an instruction: "What is it, what could it be like?" In the future, the instruction is not repeated. After the termination of spontaneous statements of the subject with the help of additional questions stimulate to continuation of answers. In addition to verbatim recording of the respondent's answers on each card, the experimenter observes the response time, involuntary replicas, emotional manifestations and other changes in the behavior of the subject during the diagnostic session. After the presentation of all 10 cards, the experimenter on a certain system interrogates the subject regarding the parts and characteristics of each of the spots on which associations have arisen. During the interview, the subject can also refine or supplement his previous answers.

There are several systems for calculating and interpreting the indicators of the Rorschach method. Among the most common categories included in the indicators are localization, determinants, content, popularity/originality.

Localization indicates the part of the spot from which the subject associates his answer: whether the answer is an entire spot, some common detail, an unusual detail, a white part of the card or some combination of white and dark areas.

The determinants of the answer include form, color, hue and traffic & quot ;. Although, of course, there is no movement in itself in the ink spot, yet the perception of the subject as a moving object belongs to this category. Within these categories, there is a more detailed differentiation. For example, the movement of a person, the movement of an animal, as well as an abstract or inanimate movement, is counted separately. Similarly, a shade can be perceived as representing depth, texture, an undefined shape, for example, a cloud or gray-white color reproduction.

The interpretation of content varies depending on the metric definition system, but some basic categories are used constantly. The main among them are human figures and their details (or fragments of the human body), animal figures and their details, anatomical structure. Other commonly used categories of indicators include inanimate objects, plants, geographic maps, clouds, blood stains, x-rays, sexual objects, symbols.

popularity is often determined based on the relative frequency of different responses among people in general, by comparison with popular response tables.

The interpretation of the Rorschach methodology is based on the relative number of answers falling into different categories, as well as on certain ratios and relationships of different categories. The directions of interpretation do not have a satisfactory theoretical justification, but are entirely determined by the empirical relationships of individual indicators with those or other characteristics of the personality. For example, it is difficult to explain from scientific positions why the use of rare details in the answers indicates uncertainty, anxiety, and the interpretation of the white background in extroverts is about negativism.

In the psychological conclusion, based on the results of the Rorschach technique, the intellectual and affective spheres of the personality are usually described, as well as the features of interpersonal interactions. The clinical psychologist, when composing it, also takes into account additional information obtained from external sources.

The main factor complicating the interpretation of the indicators of the Rorschach methodology is the total number of answers, known as the productivity of answers. It is empirically shown that the productivity of answers is directly related to the age, intellectual level and education of the individual. Although it is believed that the described technique is applicable to people aged from preschool to adult, normative data were originally obtained mainly in adult groups. In an attempt to broaden the age limits of the interpretation of the Rorschach method, L. Eymes and his colleagues compiled and published norms for children between the ages of 2 and 10, for adolescents from 10 to 16 years, for the elderly at the age of 70 and above.

At present, attempts are being made to use computer technology in processing the results of this technique.

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