Psychic as a dynamic formation, The subject of activity...

Psychic as a dynamic formation

Recognition of the psyche by the property of matter means that it, like other properties of matter, can manifest itself only when objects (for example, living and inanimate, living and alive) interact or a living object with external influences (for example, electromagnetic radiation). This means that matter itself does not give birth to the psyche. Mental arises as a result of the interaction of the living and the environment in the form of transformed primary and, on their basis, secondary traces of interaction into subjective experience and in the form of an image, as a result of the special activity of the living being in constructing the image of objects. That is, the psyche does not exist by itself and always, but is only the result of interaction. It is not a static permanent phenomenon, but a dynamic formation that resumes all the time as a result of interaction. Here, an analogy with electricity may be true - it can be fixed only when the generator is running, when the mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. Stopping the generator leads to the disappearance of electricity.

Therefore, the psyche does not exist by itself and not forever, but only if the living entity interacts with the environment. We saw this in the theoretical analysis of reflection, and we see mental disturbances in limiting or terminating the interaction of a living being with the environment (the effect of sensory isolation). IM Sechenov described the observation of Botkin's physician for a patient who had lost all sensory sensitivity except one ear. When he was closed this ear, the patient immediately fell asleep. Under the limitations of external influences on a person (temperature, light, sound, etc.) against the background of the restriction of our own movements, we observe disturbances in the mental activity of a person: illusions, hallucinations and other mental disorders sometimes require medical help.

Our main conclusion from this analysis is that mental reflection is always the result of the interaction of a living being with the world. Outside of this interaction, the psyche can not be.

The subject of activity as a highly organized matter

Now let's try to decipher the concept of "highly organized matter". What is meant here? First of all, it should be noted that not every matter possesses such a property, but only a specially organized one, which can appear at a certain stage of its development. On Earth, such a matter is some living beings, organisms possessing a neural tissue, i.e. nervous cells capable of having such a state as a subjective sensory experience (enter a special state) and participate in the formation of the image of objects. Perhaps, mental reflection can also be performed on a different basis, different from the nervous tissue, but we do not know of any example of the presence of a psyche without a nervous tissue. We know that nervous tissue is present only in living beings, although not in all, but only evolutionarily young and sufficiently developed. This raises questions about the need for the appearance of nervous tissue and psyche in the evolution of the living, as well as the role of the psyche in the life of living beings.

Recall that in itself a nervous tissue can only give subjective sensory experiences of a certain modality as a transformation of secondary traces of interaction. To form an image of an object, situation and the world, one's own activity of a living being is necessary. Therefore, the often-found statement in the literature that the psyche is a function of the brain is not entirely true. The psychic is rather the function of the acting subject (the living being), and the brain is that apparatus by which the subjective image of the objective world is formed. The brain does not create a psyche by itself, it requires the interaction of a living being with objects and the special activity of a living image of objects that is alive by construction. But the brain, the nervous tissue are the necessary means, without which there can not be a subjective sensory experience, and therefore, a discovery of the external world, i.e. creating images of objects, situations and the world. We do not know why the neural tissue has this property - to give subjective sensory experience as a special condition, but we are conducting fairly successful studies of the processes and mechanisms of the formation of images of objects and the situation as a whole.

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