Psychoanalytic approach - Psychology

Psychoanalytic approach

According to psychoanalysis, mental development takes place in the process of combating biological desires and needs of a person with the constraints set by society to satisfy them. It is assumed that the outcome of this struggle is not clear not only at each particular stage of development, but also as a result of it. Depending on the more or less satisfactory passage of stages of development in an adult, a greater or lesser level of mental maturity is observed. At the same time, mental immaturity manifests itself in the propensity to use ineffective protective mechanisms and to neuroses. According to the theory of Freud, the personality consists of three components: "It", "I" and Super-I & quot ;. It - the most primitive component, the carrier of instincts and drives. Being unconscious, It obeys the pleasure principle. I follows the reality principle and takes into account the properties of the external world. Super-I serves as a bearer of moral norms and serves as a critic and censor.

• According to Z. Freud, the newborn child is a pure It & quot ;, i.e. a set of immediate desires that require immediate satisfaction. At the first stage of psychosexual development the focus of the emotional life of the infant, its main erogenous zone is the mouth - the oral stage. But even with the best care, limitations or delays in fulfilling the baby's desires are unavoidable. They lead to differentiation, isolation of the object. Gradually from It under the influence of external factors, differentiates "I". This instance of the personality forces the child to obey external requirements and learn to postpone satisfaction, i.e. there is a transition to the principle of reality.


In the oral stage of fixing a person's libido, according to Freud, certain personality traits are formed: insatiability, greed, exactingness, dissatisfaction with all the proposed. According to his ideas, already at the oral stage people are divided into optimists and pessimists.

• In the second year of life, when the child is trained, the anal hole becomes the center of emotional life. At the anal stage (lasting from one to three years), the bans and demands of the external world gradually become internal, as the child acquires his or her excretory physiological functions. the instance of "Super-I" begins to form. In this instance, the authorities, the influence of parents and other adults are laid.


According to psychoanalysts, at this stage such traits of character as neatness, neatness, punctuality are laid; stubbornness, secrecy, aggression; savings, economy, propensity to collect.

• The phallic stage (3-5 years) characterizes the highest stage of child sexuality. The leading erogenous zone is the genitals. If the two previous stages were autoerotic, i.e. directed toward the child himself, now the libido becomes objective, directed at the other person, first of all by the parent of the opposite sex.

The sexual attraction directed at the boy by the mother, and the ambivalent feelings connected with this to the father-competitor, Z. Freud, called the Oedipus complex. A similar motivational-affective complex in girls was named complex Electrons. The resolution of the Oedipus (Electra) complex is due to the identification with the parent of his gender. By overthrowing this complex, the entity "Super-I" is completely differentiated.

Thus, according to Z. Freud, all three personal instances are formed in man at the end of the phallic stage, i.e. to five or six years. This was the basis for Freud's famous saying: "The child is the father of an adult". I from this age plays an important role in the organization of human life. Acting on the basis of the reality principle, I fights simultaneously and against destructive impulses "It's", and against the severity of "Super-I". In such conditions, an alarm condition appears as a signal of internal or external hazards. Protection mechanisms I "Sublimation and repression and repression. Sublimation is viewed by Freud as a positive mechanism that makes possible the fruitful activity of a person, and repression - as more negative, capable of leading to a neurosis.


The period of childhood up to five or six years from the point of view of psychoanalysis is considered the most important in a person's life. Fixation on the phallic stage promotes the emergence of such personality traits as self-observation, prudence, rational thinking, and in the future - exaggeration of the masculine principle.

The latent stage (5-12 years old) got its name due to the fact that during this period there is a decrease in the child's interest in gender issues, they go to the background. At this time I completely controls the needs of "It's". Being divorced from the sexual goal, the energy of the libido is transferred to the assimilation of the universal human experience fixed in science and culture, to the establishment of friendly relations with peers and adults outside the family.

The genital stage (12-18 years) is characterized by the union of all previous erogenous zones, increased tension of sexual desire and the desire of the adolescent to normal sexual intercourse. According to Freud, this is the final stage of psychosexual development, which should lead to the formation of mature sexuality and a mature balance between love and work. This stage (like all the others) develops in a strong dependence on the complete or partial resolution of the contradictions of the previous stages. At the genital stage, I uses two new defense mechanisms: asceticism and intellectualization. Asceticism, by internal prohibitions, suppresses compulsive aspirations for sensual pleasure, intellectualization reduces them to imagination, which also allows them to free themselves from them .


At the genital stage, mental homosexuality and narcissism can be formed. The first nature of the character is related to the preference of one's sex, active activity and communication in same-sex groups, but not necessarily with sexual perversions. With narcissistic sexuality, the libido, as it were, turns from the outside world to the subject itself, self-contentment and complacency begin to occupy the main place. Such characters direct their attention primarily to themselves, their actions and experiences.

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