Psychoanalytic, Jungian And Individual Psychology Theories

The Psychoanalytic Theory founded by Sigmund Freud, The Jungian Theory produced by Carl Jung, and The individual psychology Theory established by Alfred Adler were all founded by three very important influential minds of Psychology. Freud believed the mind had three levels the unconscious, the preconscious and the conscious. Furthermore, Psychoanalytic theories focus on the unconscious mind, which contains introverted sexual feelings and unwanted thoughts, events and activities of the resenting conscious mind. Jungian took many of the same terms Freud used but believed those to mean something different. Neither Jung or Adler believed that the Oedipus complex was a common phenomenon as Freud did.

Sigmund Freud developed the psychoanalytic theory, which proposes unconscious motivations influence personality development. According to Freud's theory, your brain has three components the id, the ego and the super ego. The id is a real pleasure seeker and wants immediate satisfaction it is into aggression and what the id wants it wants immediately. The ego try's to meet the ids needs the best which it can the ego works under the reality principal keeping desires realistic and under control so they can bring long-term pleasure rather than hurt and disorder. The ego mediated between your desires of the id and the restraints imposed by the superego. The super ego is like a conscious that represents society's norms and values. It considers the real and the ideal. The super ego thinks about how a person should behave according to society and uses ideas about morality that originates from ones parents and the environment. The super ego also provides person a solid sense of right and wrong. The super ego can make you feel very proud or very guilty. The superego often opposes the id and the ego, and works hard to reconcile the two.

"According to Psychoanalysis, humans progress through a series of stages of sexual development beginning at birth where sexual pleasure started out in early infancy, and ending with mature sexual identity in puberty"(Murdock, 2009, p. 41). The proposed five stages of development that humans go thru as they grow up are, the oral stage, the anal stage, the phallic stage, latency stage and genital stage. In case a individual receives too much or inadequate pleasure from one of these stages, he or she can become fixated on that stage and focus too much on the pleasers associated recover stage. Whenever a person's drives and desires get out of control, they could use one or more of their defense mechanisms, which are a form of denial to protect themselves.

"Jung called the psychological cosmetic of your person the psyche. In the center of Jungian personality, structure is the ego" (Murdock, 2009, p. 68). Jung believed the ego, that was only an integral part of the human mind, was with the capacity of a personal direct awareness or their conscious. The vast majority of the human mind is unconscious but through the power of symbols, we can explore the unconscious and utilize its vast reservoir of creative energy. Jung believed dreams gave us a window into the unconscious as well as the role of art and religion. Jung thought that only area of the mind was truly personal the region of the personal unconscious. In the personal unconscious, there is the persona, which is the internalized social role you have. As well as, the shadow, the parts with which humans are ashamed of and make an effort to repress. The collective unconscious contains inherited capacity to form symbols these are called archetypes. To get the real creative energy of the unconscious one has to get completely into the collective unconscious. "Jung believed that specific characterizations of these archetypes can change over time, but the essential characteristics of the precise archetype didn't" (Murdock, 2009, p. 69)

Adler the founder of Individual Psychology believed that the universal complex afflicting all children was the inferiority feeling that each child activities because to be born a child in an adult world. Children realized that adults have more privileges and more knowledge. With social interest, a person stops feeling sorry for oneself and begin caring more about others. The whole dynamic of mental illness according to Adler is how they has unsuccessfully coped with the sensation of inferiority. As well as the treatment plan, the unique way the therapist is going to guide the given individual to the course of social interest. There are many factors that can bring a child down into a worsening of inferiority feeling. For example Adler believed children who are neglected, abused, or even pampered by there parents can have a feelings of inferiority. Adler believed there are three paths a person can take to get to the healthy mode of social interest. Interpersonal relations with friends, development of a family group, and a job where they can get a sense of achievement will help them develop social interest. "Our task is therefore to find ourselves worthy despite occasional human imperfection. The existential task can be involved with finding one's devote the cosmos. Coming to terms with religion is a part of this task" (Murdock, 2009, p. 115-116). Religion is area of the solution not a part of the situation according to Adler.

Both Jung and Freud proposed that that is unconscious is seeking its way to the top to become known and be conscious. Freud and Jung shared a great interest in dream symbols but that's where their similarities ended. Freud attempted to reduce all human behavior to the underlying internal drives of sex and aggression. Jung was much more humanistic emphasizing the actual of each human being to grow and be creative. Therefore, instead of viewing dream symbols as a mere representation of sexual drives, Jung thought that such symbols could allow humans to grow by harnessing some of that creative energy of the unconscious. Freud believed religion tried to control sex and aggression and it was something mankind would eventually out grow. Freud viewed religion as apart of the problem and imperfect solution. Jung however believed religion was area of the solution. Jung believed the reason why man needs psychotherapy is because they may have lost touch with religion. In the past, art and religion provided man with a symbolic connection with his unconscious. Jung believed the only way to accomplish mental health is made for a person to reconnect with the spiritual roots. Adler also believed religion was a part of the solution.

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