Psychological and pedagogical approaches to adult education
In-house training is built on approaches that must be taken into account in the work of a specialist responsible for the development of personnel in the organization. Three parties are involved in training: adult trainee, organization and specialist (structure) that conducts training. An adult trainee is a manager, a line manager, a top manager, specialists involved in the relationship with the organization where they work. An organization that has a system of in-house training is an enterprise seeking resources of its own positive change. A training specialist is a human resources manager, an organization psychologist, an external consultant, a representative of a business center or a corporate training center.
Several approaches that have independent value when creating a system of training at the enterprise are based on the training of adults: acmeological, andragogical and project approaches, innovative teaching, counseling and coaching.
The essence of acmeological and andragogical approaches lies in reliance on the integrity of the subject, passing the stage of maturity, when his individual, personal and subject-activity characteristics are studied in unity, in all interrelations and mediations, in order to promote the achievement of higher levels, to which everyone can rise. The necessary prerequisite for adult education is its ability to self-realization within the life strategy (KA Abulkhanova-Slavskaya, VN Druzhinin) in such areas as self-awareness, reflection, self-determination, self-esteem, self-esteem, level of claims, meaning formation, self-regulation, self-organization of life time.
In addition to taking into account the totality of the characteristics of a person in which his maturity finds expression, the position of acmeology, which analyzes maturity and "acme", is important for the creation and implementation of in-house training. more narrowed, meaning the mastery of a person's profession, the achievement of the highest level of skill, professionalism (NV Kuzmin). Comprehension of the essence of professionalism, understanding of the ways leading to it, has not only theoretical but also practical significance. The required professional competence is achieved due to the formed professional position. This provision has an applied meaning, on which the system of in-house training will be built. The key goal formulated before any stage of the training work is the formation of an active position of specialists and their professional competence. Hence it is clear how relevant acmeology development is to the range of problems: professionalism and its main characteristics; professionalism and human health; conditions and factors for achieving high professional competence; ways to prevent professional deformation.
In this case, the level of professionalism is a common factor that unites the concepts of personal development in professional activity (VA Klimov, AK Markova, KK Platonov, VD Shadrikov, etc.). It is proportional to the ability of the individual to take new forms, means, methods and professional knowledge. In the process of becoming professional, the personality develops. In this case, we can talk about four areas of development - personal professional, professional qualification, professional and moral.
Common akmeologicheskim factors, contributing to the development of professional skills and personality specialist, are a high level of motivation, the need for achievements, high personal and professional standards, the desire for self-realization. They also include high levels of professional perception, thinking and anticipation, as well as the prestige of professional mastery. Among the special acmeological factors, stress resistance, developed psychomotor, high level of attention, etc., can be distinguished. what is called professionally important psychological qualities. To build educational programs within the organization, it is necessary to diagnose and take into account the identified factors.
Training of staff within the organization should use the achievements of andragogy as a field of scientific and pedagogical knowledge and a field of social practice aimed at teaching adults.
Based on age features, the basic andragogical principles of learning are formulated, which form the basis of the theory of adult learning.
1. Priority of self-study. Self-activity is the basis of adult learning.
2. The principle of cooperative activity, which provides for the joint activity of the trainee with the trainer, as well as with colleagues in the planning, implementation, evaluation and correction of the learning process.
3. The principle of reliance on the learner's life experience, used as one of the sources of learning.
4. Individualization of learning. In accordance with this principle, everyone creates their own training program, oriented to specific educational needs and goals, taking into account his experience, level of preparation, psychophysiological and cognitive features.
5. Systematic training. This principle provides for compliance with the correspondence of goals, content, forms, methods, teaching aids and evaluating learning outcomes.
6. Context of training. In accordance with this principle, training, on the one hand, pursues the vital for the learning goal, is oriented to the fulfillment of social roles or personal development. On the other hand, education is built taking into account the professional, social, everyday activities of the learner and his spatial, temporal, professional, domestic factors.
7. The principle of actualization of learning outcomes. This principle involves the application in practice of acquired knowledge, skills, skills, qualities.
8. Principle of learning electivity. It means giving the learner the freedom to choose goals, content, forms and methods, sources, means, time, time, place of training, and evaluation of learning outcomes.
9. The principle of development of educational needs. According to this principle, the evaluation of the learning outcomes is carried out by revealing the actual degree of mastering the teaching materials and identifying those of them without mastering which it is impossible to achieve the goal. In addition, the learning process is built in order to form new educational needs for students, the specification of which is carried out after achieving a specific goal of learning.
10. Principle of reflexivity. It means understanding the learning and teaching of all the parameters of the learning process and its actions for its organization.
The need for an innovative approach to the creation of in-house training is dictated by a high degree of uncertainty, the volatility of the business environment, the need to create new products, introduce innovations in the organization.
A professional must have a set of qualities defined by the profession, be able to make non-standard decisions and take responsibility for their implementation. It should be a communicative creative personality, able to think in market categories. Aiming for the future requires heightened sensitivity to new phenomena in life, in the activities of the organization, groups and individuals. The innovative approach to adult education is focused on the formation of precisely these characteristics of a professional, group and organization as a whole.
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