Psychological and pedagogical model of content and methods of general education. On the experience of a number of federal experimental sites "Eureka"The model of the contents and methods of general secondary education, which has developed in the practice of the best innovative schools, "Eureka", reflects, on the one hand, the transitional nature of the current situation in the general education system, and on the other hand, this main, order for education. It reflects the attempts of the initiative teachers to overcome the formal passage of the pupils' stages of instruction in the modern school, to find an answer to the question of how it is possible in modern conditions to impart to the students the key competences of modern society, to give the school and the education system as a whole the status of a full-fledged civil institution. With regard to the actual content of education, the focus of the problem is concentrated, if we use purely scientific terminology, on the correlation of fundamental and applied knowledge (theory and practice) in the educational process. The problem is not new, first of all, in terms of the task of combining learning and life. In the traditional domestic school, attempts have been made either to introduce subjects directly oriented to mastering practical skills and skills, or to adapt the content of knowledge to practice. At the same time, the class-less system of organizing the educational process and the relations between its participants remained unchanged.
In the schools of "Eureka" a different approach emerged. The situation of mastering both fundamental and applied knowledge approaches how this knowledge is reproduced and used in practice. In a certain part of the educational process, a class-less system is abandoned, through the introduction of design and exploratory activities, artistic creativity, organized as free associations of students, teachers, parents and the public, and, consequently, the content of education changes. It introduces the methods of research, design and artistic creative activity and interaction of people in these activities, corresponding to the modern stage of development of society. Thus, the relationship between teachers and students changes - they become multi-position, dynamic. Also, the relationship between pupils and parents changes, the relationship of students with each other. There are quite meaningful relations between the student groups of different schools both among themselves and with the surrounding social institutions. And the diversity of the subject and personality-motivational aspects of these relationships also become the content of education. This is now, according to the GEF of the second generation, required from all pedagogical collectives.
Thus, a new pedagogical practice appears in education - the design and implementation of special forms of educational work by teachers, where there is a real clash of interests of different participants in the educational process in the performance of one common cause, and which, in fact, are the events of the child's life. The inclusion of a student in these events, the search for his place in them, is the true educational activity aimed at developing the competencies of modern man. It is characteristic of the statement of one pupil of the gymnasium, "Coryphaeus" Ekaterinburg: "We all go to school for support and recognition; the most valuable thing that a school can give - a sense of self-reliance and the joy of working together. " This practice can be carried out exclusively at the expense of creativity of teachers, because it is always exclusive. It is necessary to search for opportunities to reproduce this or that type of knowledge in the real conditions of a particular place of life of a child at a given time. The effectiveness of this work will be the degree of involvement of students in these events, i.e. a kind of reproduction of events within school life.
It is important to note that in this case there are no permanently fixed positions of the type: student - researcher (designer), and teacher - research leader (project manager). The teacher puts the research task before the student as a scientific adviser, then advises him not only as a scientific adviser, but also as a traditional teacher, then assesses the level of his development and ability for the next stage of research as an analyst and psychologist, then organizes the activity of the student as a manager. Accordingly, the position of the student is constantly changing. As a result, the teaching profession more and more resembles the activity of accompanying the individual educational trajectories of the student. In this functional position, the teacher's true attitude toward the individuality of the child is manifested. After all, the teacher is forced to constantly assess the possibilities of promoting his student in mastering the essence of the reality being studied, i.e. assess the development potential of the student and create conditions for its implementation. And act accordingly, namely: create (and here we use a purely psychological term) in the phenomenal field of the student's consciousness special objects (didactic artifacts) that allow the student to independently discover the essence of the things studied and thereby develop. This leads to one important conclusion: the true content of general education is the space for constructing possible acts of the student's development. This idea is fundamentally different from the already almost incantation slogan "Be attentive to the personality of the disciple." Instead, one must be attentive to the events of interaction (cooperation, co-creation) between the student and the teacher. Now it becomes clear that the teacher in this cooperation is forced to set special tasks. He becomes a researcher of the space of development of the human spirit, which is created by the joint efforts of teachers and children. And in relation to work with a specific student, the teacher becomes the pioneer of that part of the space that is accessible to this pupil, or, if we use the term of LS Vygotsky, the zone of his nearest development.
This significantly changes the view of the psychological support of the educational process. The central point in the analysis of the student's educational trajectory is not the definition of its correspondence to the type of leading activity, although this must be taken into account, but the type of interaction of coalitions of people, puzzled by the formation of this child, the determination of the reserves and resources of these coalitions.
Traditional types of learning process in the form of lessons remain, simply changing their place in accordance with the new classification of school knowledge .
1. There is a basic (unchangeable) part that is meant for all children; it includes both fundamental and applied knowledge. There is a variable (variable) part, which provides individual educational trajectories of students. The ratio of basic and variable parts is determined by the type of educational activity at each level in different ways.
2. There are universal (timeless) knowledge that determines the general way of orientation of the person in the surrounding reality, and socially adaptive (practical-oriented) that determine the success of human adaptation in life in accordance with age and the social niche chosen by him. Their ratio is determined by the type of school and the social situation of the child's development.
The content of education that ensures achievement of the final goals of the school consists, first of all, in the acquisition of key competences and the individual educational trajectory of further education (Table 3.1).
The correlation between types of educational activity and the content of education at different levels of the general education school
Specific type of educational activity
Specific educational content
Discussion-analytical (quasi-research) activities in the classroom, artistic creative activity in various arts and literature
Common methods of cultural description of reality, its transformation and representation in signs and artistic images
Pre-profile (main) school
Samples in the form of research activities, expeditions, group activities
General ideas about the content of different types of modern human activities
Profile school (including primary vocational education)
Project activities, business and project-organizational games, volunteering
In-depth knowledge of the profile, orientation in general terms of socio-political reality (socialization), modern skills of participation in business life (including communication), information literacy
Thus, the presented model requires a substantial revision of the content of programs and curricula at different levels of the school. As a result of its introduction into the educational process, the view on the continuity of education changes. Elementary school is becoming an independent stage of general education, the main school is in fact becoming the final stage of general education, and the oldest (complete secondary) school is one of the initial links in the system of vocational education.
Using this model inevitably leads to a change in the requirements for the teacher's professionalism. He
should be able to find alternative ways for students to master the general content of programs.
The prospect of the development of general education is the entrance into new spheres of social interaction of people interested in the development of civil society and education as an integral part of it.
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