Psychological aspects of advertising and promotion
The concept, types, functions of advertising
The result, the product of a business activity is a product (or service) that has to find its consumer. Without the sale of products, the sense of business activity is lost. For communication between the consumer and the product, marketing communications are used.
• Marketing communications - this is informing about the product, persuasion, changing the predisposition to buy the product.
The types of marketing communications include:
2) sales promotion;
3) direct marketing;
4) public relations.
Consider more advertising as the most important for
product promotion is a kind of marketing communication.
• Advertisement is a form of mass communication, in which are created and disseminated informative, imaginative, expressive-suggestive texts about goods, services, ideas with the purpose of rendering psychological influence on the mass and individual consciousness of consumers and motivations them to the right advertiser's choice and action.
As a form of mass communication, advertising has the following features:
1) communicator is a collective and includes: the customer, the creators of advertising, the actual advertising hero;
2) audience advertising is heterogeneous, indefinite in number, anonymous, spontaneously formed, which leads to the need for special studies of the audience;
3) message advertising has a public character, has a social focus; the main purpose of the message is to influence the behavior of the consumer.
4) communication channels are the media chosen to broadcast the advertisement.
Types of advertising
1. Social (non-market) advertising. The goal of social advertising is to modify the behavior of the public in terms of providing life safety, so it is also called activating. For this purpose, we use:
• videos that warn of the dangers and consequences of a particular behavior (speeding, smoking, drug addiction, etc.);
• billboards and posters - outdoor advertising. In particular, modern plasma electronic boards, posters placed in the entrances of residential buildings, etc., can be used;
• print advertising - in the press;
• different types of mailings, leaflets.
When creating an advertising advertisement, it is necessary to remember the following: a) the particle not It is not perceived by the subconscious, so it is necessary to formulate the motives for the audience in an affirmative form; b) demonstration of scenes of violence, blood, death can injure the viewer and cause rejection of advertising.
Often in social advertising scenes of violence, death are used. This can cause rejection of advertising by the viewer because of strong negative feelings. In addition, some viewers can provoke the actualization of depressive states, suicidal intentions, the reproduction of violent actions. For example, the clip Attach the seat belt was banned for display on television because of frank and even shocking scenes of death. A series of outdoor social advertising against smoking, demonstrating violent actions, such as: putting out a cigarette on the body of an infant, cutting a vein with a cigarette, was also banned because of the negative impact on the psyche of the viewer. In the videos of Andrew Bilzho on the topic of safe behavior, such stories are given with humor, which in part relieves tension and works to accept advertising by the viewer.
Psychologists have recently been actively discussing the problem of demonstrations in the media, and in particular in advertising, scenes of violence and death. It should be borne in mind that viewing such scenes can have the effect of modeling behavior; those. Instead of being frightened and avoiding the actions shown in the video, people can reproduce them. This effect is especially strong in children and adolescents.
2. Product (consumer) advertising - the main type of advertising products or services of the organization. This type of advertising has a variety, depending on the specific objectives of the advertising campaign:
• stimulating advertising - is aimed at promoting sales;
• advertising in order to expand sales;
• Annoying advertising - the most aggressive, its task - to convince to buy exactly this product;
• Comparative advertising - a kind of admonitory, based on comparing the goods with the goods of competitors;
• reminding advertising - is intended to remind you of the product and its characteristics in the case when the product has already existed for a long time in the market and is known (for example, periodically appearing advertising Coca-Cola);
• Reinforcing advertising - a kind of reminder, designed to support consumers who have already bought goods, make the customer a regular customer;
• Preventive advertising - such advertising is spent demonstratively more funds than necessary, very well-known people are invited for filming. The purpose of such advertising is to undermine the positions of competitors, demonstrating their advantage. Example - advertising war Coca-Cola and Pepsi.
3. Image advertising - is aimed at forming a favorable perception of the organization by various groups of the public. For any type of advertising, any channel (television, radio, press, outdoor advertising) is suitable.
The types of image advertising include:
• Stabilizing advertising. Its goal is to increase the degree of public confidence in the organization. To do this, the public is informed about various aspects of the organization's activities, the significance and success of this activity is shown. For this purpose, for example, various television programs can be used, telling about the activities of the organization, sending out reference materials, participation of the agency in various public events, with wide coverage in the press of this participation.
• Intrafirm advertising - is aimed at encouraging employees to believe in their organization, improving their attitude to it. Various inter-departmental leaflets, posters, stands, video clips, etc. can be used.
Advertising classified and for other reasons:
to the covered area of distribution: foreign, national, regional, local, intra-firm;
by means (channels) of transmission: television; radio advertising; printed (advertising in newspapers, magazines); outdoor advertising - posters, shields; transport - on the bodies, inside the salons; souvenir polygraphic - booklets, envelopes, notebooks; postal - leaflets, letters, business correspondence, etc. and computer (distributed over the Internet);
presentation method visual ads are divided into static and dynamic (animated) ads. At computer manufacturing of static advertising graphic packages CorelDRAW, Harvard Graphics, Adobe Photoshop and others are used, at animation - 3D Studio MAX, Power Point, etc.
by way to influence the buyer: rational advertising - informs, referring to the mind of the buyer, gives arguments; emotional (associative) - refers to feelings, emotions, causes associations.
The choice of a particular type of advertising depends on the goals, objectives of the advertising campaign, the characteristics of the audience and other factors that need to be carefully examined.
Basic Advertising Functions
1. Advertising forms the demand for goods.
2. Advertising provides consumers with the necessary information about the product.
3. Advertising provides sales, supports and increases sales volumes.
4. Advertising inspires confidence in the product and its manufacturer.
5. Advertising takes into account and develops the client's needs. Advertising business provides for in-depth study and analysis of consumer psychology and its motivation when choosing a purchase.
6. Advertising works for the image of the organization. In particular, the purpose of corporate advertising is to increase the company's reputation and reputation. This task is solved with the help of corporate identity (corporate identity) - a set of color, graphic and verbal constants that provide a visual and semantic unity of goods and services, as well as all information coming from the company, its internal and external design. Only on the basis of a single corporate identity is it possible to create a branded product.
7. Advertising creates a certain image (image) of the product. Thanks to advertising, it becomes possible to distinguish this product from the products of competing firms. The same task is branded (brand) name, designed to fully match the properties of the product and the taste of the potential buyer.
8. Advertising is of an educational nature: people are learning how to advertise. Getting acquainted with the goods offered by them, they discover ways of self-improvement.
9. Advertising accelerates adaptation to innovation, thereby stimulating the growth of technological progress and translating new ideas into life.
10. Social advertising promotes the formation of adequate forms of behavior, it can effectively contribute to reducing accidents and injuries, maintain a zealous attitude to nature, favorably influence health care, etc.
Thus, the role of advertising in a society is not limited only to the promotion of goods, advertising can have a significant impact on society as a whole, and on the personality of the consumer.
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