Psychological climate in the group - Psychodiagnostics. Theory and practice

Psychological climate in the group

In this area of ​​diagnostics of the methodology (more often questionnaires, but various modifications of the sociometric procedure are also used) are designed to assess the cohesion or disunity, conflict or harmonious relations of members of a small group among themselves. The level of analysis here is more generalized, the group is considered as a unit, and the nature of the relationship of the participants is in the role of its main feature.

A number of techniques that clarify the specifics of the group atmosphere appeared in the USSR thanks to research in the field of sports psychology. So, Yu. L. Khanin, working with sports teams, adapted several questionnaires of the corresponding orientation.

To describe the psychological atmosphere in the group, there is the Diagnostic Scale-Fredler Diagnostic Scale-inventory in of the adaptation of Yu. L. Khanin. It is a set of bipolar scales with signs of the type "satisfaction - dissatisfaction", "friendliness - hostility" etc., where the subject's task is to put the icon on the continuum closer to the right or left word in the pair, evaluating his group. There are ten such scales. Based on the results of the group survey, you can find out the degree of satisfaction of individual members of the group, as well as assess the overall situation in the team. In addition, it is possible to compare the data of ordinary members of the group with each other and with the leader.

In the case of Khanin, we are talking about athletes and a coach. Khanin also suggested completing Fidler's procedure by filling out the questionnaire on the atmosphere "in relation to himself personally." This allows us to identify athletes who will have the risk of adaptation difficulties due to increased self-doubt and suspiciousness (those who assess the atmosphere in the team as more favorable than the attitude towards themselves) or because of increased self-esteem and dissatisfaction with the state of affairs in the team (those who think that the attitude toward them is more favorable than in general in the collective).

The questionnaire was adapted to LNIIFK in 1976 with an equivalence check for its original.

Another tool adapted by Yu. L. Khanin is the Group Cohesion Questionnaire by Stanley Seasore (Seashore's Index of Group Cohesiveness). The methodology was published in 1954 and was intended for industrial production teams. The advantage of the questionnaire is a significant brevity. In fact, it consists of three questions (but since the third question is divided into three parts, the total is five points): the feeling of being a part of the collective, of the attitude towards the prospect of moving to another place on the same conditions and of evaluating one's team as compared to with others. The first two questions are proposed for five options for the answer, for the last three - four. Thus, group cohesion can be assessed without calculating much more laborious sociometric indices. Reliability indicators - probably due to the ultracompactness of the technique - are not very high: the intercorrelation of scales ranges from 0.15 to 0.7. Sishor used the questionnaire in 228 groups of workers, and the differences between teams of varying degrees of cohesion were significant at p & lt; 0.001.

Yu. L. Khanin supplemented and modified the questionnaire with reference to the sports team. The final score demonstrates the overall evaluation of the team, which may be unfavorable or attractive.

There is a United States version of the Sishora questionnaire, designed for work collectives.

Express questionnaire on the study of the socio-psychological climate in the work collective, developed in Leningrad in 1983. O. S. Mikhalyuk. Under the climate, the authors understand the relatively stable system of relations of members of the collective to this collective as a whole. The climate is determined by three components: emotional, behavioral and cognitive. Each component is given three questions with ready-made answers: positive, negative, indefinite. By the combination of answers, the final evaluation of each component is established by each member of the collective: positive (if all three answers or at least two are positive); negative (combinations of three negative answers, two negative and any other third); undefined, contradictory (an undefined answer to all three questions, two indefinite and any third answer, one indefinite answer and two others with opposite signs).

Individual assessments are summarized in a general table, the average climate estimate in a sample team is calculated: a specially designed scheme allows us to characterize the structure of the attitude to the collective but to all three components.

The main advantage of the express questionnaire is its simplicity, a drawback - lack of information about validity and reliability, validation of results.

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