Psychological content of the problem of meaning...

Psychological content of the problem of meaning

The concept of meaning is an interdisciplinary concept that occupies an important place in many humanities. Rich traditions in the development of the problems associated with this concept can be found in philosophy (F. Nietzsche, E. Spranger, E. Husserl, M. Heidegger, J.-P. Sartre, M. Merleau-Ponty, M. Buber), in sociology (M. Weber, J. G. Mead), in aesthetics (AA Potebnya, R. Ingarden, M. M. Bakhtin).

In the arsenal of explanatory concepts of psychology, the concept of meaning was introduced by Z. Freud, who eventually abandoned his use. In psychotherapeutic practice, many patients believe that the whole meaning of life is only pleasure. This, we remember, is also the view of Freud. Moreover, many refer to the erroneous fact that all human activity is dictated, in the final analysis, by the desire for happiness, that all mental processes are determined solely by the pleasure principle.

Q. Frankl argues with this view. In fact, he notes, pleasure is not the goal of our aspirations, but a consequence of their realization. Kant also pointed to this fact. And with regard to eudemonism, M. Scheler noted that pleasure does not precede action as its goal, but, on the contrary, the action "carries on its back" pleasure. Probably, there are special conditions or circumstances in which pleasure can really represent the goal of the volitional act.

Frankl writes: "In addition to these special cases, the theory of the pleasure principle does not take into account the essentially purposeful nature of all mental activity. In general, a person does not want pleasure, but precisely what he wants. Objects of human desire can be different things, while pleasure remains always the same - as in the case of value-oriented behavior, and in the opposite case. Hence it can be concluded that the recognition of the pleasure principle should lead to the leveling of all possible targets of the person. "

For the viewer in the theater, it does not matter whether he is watching a tragedy or a comedy. For him, the content of the presentation is more important. And of course, no one will argue that a certain amount of displeasure that can be caused in the souls of the audience when experiencing the tragedy occurring on the scene is the purpose of their visit to the theater; then all the theater-goers could be regarded as hidden masochists. We can definitively refute the assertion that pleasure is the ultimate goal of all, and not only the final outcome of individual aspirations in such a way that we turn this assertion over. If, for example, Napoleon really conducted his battles only to give himself a sense of pleasure from their victorious outcome (the same sense of pleasure that some simple soldier delivers to himself in the simplest way - for example, food, alcohol and prostitutes), then Last Goal the last Napoleonic battles, the "ultimate goal" Napoleonic defeats, should, on the contrary, consist in the feeling of displeasure that followed the defeats, just as the feeling of pleasure followed the victories. "

One can agree with V. Frankl that the meaning of life can not be in one pleasure. Firstly, constant enjoyment creates satiety. It is known that when Sweden reached the ideal of the consumer paradise, the statistics of suicides immediately jumped. If pleasure really constituted the meaning of life, then life would have no meaning. Thirdly, if we are guided by statistical data, then we can say that a normal person on average experiences incomparably more emotions of displeasure than pleasures during the day.

The failure of the principle of pleasure as a maxim would still be preserved if it did occur, as Z. Freud writes about it in his work "On the Other Side of the Pleasure Principle." "In psychoanalytic theory," writes Freud, "we no doubt accept the proposition that the course of mental processes is automatically regulated by the principle of pleasure, i.e. we believe that this process is each time excited by stress associated with displeasure and then takes such a direction that its final result coincides with the decrease of this stress - with the avoidance of displeasure or with the generation of pleasure. "

According to Frankl, with the postulation of any, even universal, principle, with the statement of some cosmic tendencies in general, from the ethical point of view, nothing has yet been clarified. The problem only begins with the question of whether we should obey such tendencies - where we can find them in our own soul world. It could also be reasonably assumed that our own task is precisely to confront the domination of similar external and internal pressures. "

Joy, Frankl argues, can make life meaningful only when it makes sense. Its narrow meaning can not, however, be in itself. In fact, he lies outside it. Joy every time is aimed at the subject. Scheler showed that joy is a purposeful feeling as opposed to mere pleasure, which he classifies as non-directional feelings, feelings corresponding to a particular state, to "feelings-states."

Scheler points to the fact that this difference finds its expression already in everyday language use: pleasure is experienced about something, and rejoice in something. Joy can never be an end in itself. "Every human person," Frankl writes, "is something unique, and each of its life situations is unique. This uniqueness and uniqueness are manifested in the specific task of man. Each person can have only one single task at any given moment; but it is this singularity that makes up the absoluteness of this task. Therefore, although the world is viewed in perspective, but to each sector there is only one true perspective. Thus, there is absolute fidelity not in spite of, but just because of the prospective relativity .

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