Psychological counseling and psychological correction
Psychological counseling and psychotherapy are areas of psychological practice in which the main result is a change in the situation of a client seeking psychological help.
Great psychological dictionary defines psychotherapy as rendering psychological help to healthy people (they are called clients) in situations of psychological difficulties, and also in case of need to improve the quality of one's own life. In counseling practice, the psychologist acts as an expert in the field of psychological characteristics and states, helps to optimize tasks, find or make a decision.
The object of psychotherapy and counseling is a mentally healthy person who is confronted with psychological difficulties, and the role of the psychologist is to help overcome these difficulties. The difference lies in the way the psychologist works and the nature of the impact on the client.
In the case of psychological counseling, the psychologist informs the client of psychological information that is necessary to solve the problem, provides an independent viewpoint on those events and situations reported to him by the client. The crucial point is that the psychologist will not give advice or suggest solutions, the client must solve his problem himself. The psychologist will only create the necessary conditions for this - those in which the client will be able to find adequate actions that allow him to cope with difficulties or solve the problem. To do this, the consultant asks questions that sooner or later arise when choosing a solution, helps assess the consequences and weigh the prospects, understand the changes in the life of the client and his relationships with others and close people, to which this or that decision will lead. However, the client takes the decision himself and does it not at random, but after weighing the possible consequences and assuming responsibility for them.
Thus, three main tasks of the counselor psychologist are singled out.
• Identify the true causes of the customer's difficulties. Such causes are often not realized or misunderstood. A proper understanding of the causes of difficulties is the first step to getting rid of them.
• Communicating psychological information to the client that will help him to re-evaluate the problem situation, look at it from a different point of view, and find alternative ways of behavior in it.
• Creation of conditions under which the client will be able to solve the problem on his own.
Unlike the client's psychologist-consultant, the client of the psychotherapist is a person who is unable to cope with his problem on his own. He needs psychotherapeutic intervention, an external influence that will help him change. The psychotherapist helps to overcome or compensate psychological features that have caused difficulties.
Therefore, the tasks of psychotherapy are more complex and require a greater competence of the specialist, in particular, additional education in the field of a certain type of psychotherapy and often passing his own psychotherapy by the therapist before he engages in practical activities. In general, the tasks of this activity can be reduced to the following:
- Diagnosis of the cause and boundaries of the problem or psychological disorder that the client addressed;
- the forecast of the variants of the development of the problem: what is the probability of improvement (deterioration, preservation in the unchanged form) of the current state; under the influence of what factors may occur changes in one direction or another; what is the probability of activation of these factors;
- the definition of strategies to overcome the problem or ways to compensate for the defect;
- the definition of the conditions for the optimal functioning of the personality and the support of the client at the stages of transition to life under new conditions.
Like psychological counseling, psychotherapy can take place in an individual or in a group form. Individual psychotherapy occurs, as a rule, in the form of psychotherapeutic conversation, group therapy - in the form of various trainings.
There are more forms of psychological counseling. Individual psychological counseling can be divided into types depending on the problematic and spatial organization. On the principle of problematics it is customary to allocate counseling on problems of communication, interpersonal relationships, personal, emotional problems, etc. According to the type of spatial organization of psychological counseling, full-time and distance counseling is provided. The latter, in particular, can be carried out by telephone or via the Internet. Group counseling is a form of training work. In this case, they talk about trainings on issues of teamwork, team building, personal growth, business communication and many other forms of group counseling.
In accordance with the tasks and types of psychological counseling and psychotherapy, their methods are also different. Methods of psychotherapy remain outside the scope of this textbook, here we will focus on earlier stages of the formation of knowledge and practical skills of a psychologist. Nevertheless, we will nevertheless touch upon the methods common to psychotherapy and psychological counseling. Such methods are conversation and observation. Despite the fact that this textbook refers primarily to the research capabilities of these methods, there are a number of aspects related to the application of observation
and conversations in psychological practice common to different aspects of the psychologist's work.
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