Psychological counseling as a kind of psychological help to business entities
Currently, there is a vast arsenal of types and methods of psychological assistance that entrepreneurs can use to solve various psychological problems. The most famous and common of them is psychological counseling. Now in many business organizations there are positions of a psychologist, specialized psychological services, offices of psychological relief are organized.
Psychological counseling, unlike psychotherapeutic help, does not imply a deep impact on the person. In the consultation process, we mainly consider situations of interpersonal communication, interaction in the organization, personal and emotional problems of the client.
Analyzing the various definitions of counseling, we have identified its main characteristics.
1. Counseling helps a person make choices in a difficult situation, and then act themselves.
2. Counseling contributes to the development of the client's personality regardless of the problem being solved.
3. In psychological counseling, the client's responsibility is emphasized; recognizes that an independent, responsible individual is able, in appropriate circumstances, to make independent decisions, and the consultant creates conditions that encourage the strong-willed behavior of the client.
4. The heart of psychological counseling is advisory interaction (consultative contact) between the client and the counselor, based on the philosophy of client-centered therapy.
5. A wide range of psychological techniques and techniques can be used in psychological counseling, but the main consultant tool is the personality of the consultant.
The counselor psychologist must observe the ethical principles that underlie any professional psychological impact:
1) benevolent and priceless attitude to the client;
2) focus on the norms and values of the client (no criticism);
3) the prohibition to give advice (not to take responsibility);
4) anonymity and confidentiality;
5) differentiation of personal and professional relationships (it is forbidden to enter into a personal relationship with the client).
Basic stages and techniques of psychological counseling
Psychological counseling usually lasts one hour, is held once a week. In 70% of cases, psychological counseling is one-time; the client comes only once. In some cases, if the situation is rather complicated and requires longer work, there may be several meetings with the client (up to four to six). If more time and deeper work is necessary, it is necessary to direct the client to psychotherapeutic work.
The structure of the psychological counseling consists of the following stages (Aleshina, 2000):
1. Preparatory stage. Preparation for the consultation (20-30 minutes).
2. Getting in touch. Acquaintance. Setting (10 minutes).
3. Customer inquiries. Nomination and verification of advisory hypotheses (25 min).
4. Corrective action (10-15 min).
5. Completion, exit from the contact (5-10 minutes).
6. Evaluation of the results of counseling, monitoring (if possible).Counseling techniques are certain techniques used by a counselor to conduct counseling procedures at certain stages (Table 4.3).
It should be noted that the main difference between psychological counseling and heart-to-heart talks is a conscious, meaningful choice of the techniques required at the moment under the supervision of the professional personal position of the consultant. Professional personal position is a certain personal structure that is formed in the process of professionalization of a psychologist and integrates all of his knowledge, skills, skills. In the process of counseling, the psychologist is in a professional personal position (or meta-position), which allows him to be simultaneously a participant in the process and at the same time monitor and monitor what is happening.
The main techniques used in counseling are as follows.
1. Statement of questions. Questions can be open and closed; open-ended questions are often used in counseling, which can not be answered unequivocally. Open questions are used most actively at the beginning of the consultation to encourage the client to continue or supplement what has been said, as well as to update the conversation about feelings ("What did you feel at this moment?"). Open questions can raise a sense of threat and concern - they need to be asked at the right time and carefully formulated. It is important to avoid excessive questioning, which turns the consultation into an interrogation and updates the protection of the client.
2. Approaching the client's speech. During the reception, the client speaks mostly. The consultant also tries to speak "in the client's language", adjusting to him according to the tempo, volume, and style of speech.
3. Encouraging and Calming. To create and strengthen a contact, short phrases are used that signify agreement and understanding (Continue, Yes, I understand, well, So, Yeah, mm). Encouragement reinforces support - the basis for an advisory contact.
4. Reflection of content. Paraphrase and paraphrase Rephrasing (paraphrase) is an important technique aimed at both strengthening the consultative contact and also checking the client's understanding of the counselor. In the process of paraphrasing the main idea of the client is expressed in other words, preserving the basic meaning of what has been said. Generalization is the expression of the basic idea of several thoughts or confusing utterances. The generalized paraphrases the entire fragment of the conversation.
• show the client that the consultant is attentive and tries to understand him;
• crystallize the client's thought;
• check the correct understanding of the client's thoughts.
5. Positive rephrasing. The consultant, using the customer's complaint or remarks, changes them in such a way that what was negative, causes positive emotions.
6. Alternative wording. When a client is unable to express what he feels, you can offer him two or three alternative formulations. The purpose of this method is not to find the right answer, but to stimulate it, to demonstrate some samples, which, on the basis of which, it is easier to describe their feelings.
7. Reflecting the senses. This is a rephrasing with an attitude not to the content, but to the feelings. Clients often talk about facts, so priority should be given to questions about feelings (balance of facts and feelings is necessary): And what did you feel when ...? Reflecting feelings, it is necessary to take into account all the emotional reactions of the client. The generalization of feelings is used to show the client a real unity of opposites in the emotional sphere.
8. Accentuation of emotional experiences. Signs of emotions in the story - adverbs and adjectives, verbs denoting the relation to anything, the quality of the action. By emphasizing, clarifying this word, the consultant can reach the level of feelings. A consistent accentuation of feelings is the development of dialogue in depth.
9. Using paradoxical questions. Question of type: And why not ...? - gives the client the impetus to begin to reflect on a previously unquestioned topic.
10. Clarifying and deepening wording. What the client says is deepened and refined. These are clarifying questions, a reformulation of what has been said. However, it is important not to go beyond what is obvious to the client, every step should be logical from the previous one.
The purpose of refinements is a more complete, multi-faceted coverage of what is happening to a person and linking facts with his relationships with others.
11. Pauses of silence. There are two types of silence in counseling:
• meaningful silence - usually occurs after the episodes filled with meaning and emotions, may mean that the client rethinks the situation, this is a "silent generalization", and in this case the pause should not be interrupted;
• a meaningless silence - is associated with a feeling of embarrassment when both participants in the conversation do not know what to say - such pauses arise due to the consultant's mistakes, a breach of the consultative contact, and one must go out of them.
12. The tone and volume of the voice. The tone should be friendly, at the same time, correspond to what is being said.
A not too loud, muffled voice creates a sense of trust, intimacy.
Varying the voice volume should be in accordance with the change in the client state.
13. Providing information. The counselor does not give advice, but in some cases the client needs information that he does not own. This can be information about the counseling process, counselor's behavior, counseling conditions, and the like.
14. Interpretation. Interpretation is the transformation of meaning, it helps to establish causal links between the behavior and experience of the client, as a result of which the client sees himself and his difficulties in a new way.
1) establishing a connection between separate statements, problems, events;
2) accentuation of features, contradictions of behavior or feelings of the client;
3) interpretation of the methods of psychological defense, resistance and transfer reactions (judging by our conversation, escape is for you a way to combat the fear of failure);
4) linking current events, thoughts and experiences with the past;
5) giving the client another opportunity to understand his feelings, behavior or problems.
15. Confrontation. Confrontation is used in difficult cases to demonstrate to the client the methods of psychological defense and is applicable only in case of good contact and mutual trust.
1) the confrontation with the purpose of drawing the client's attention to the contradictions in his behavior, thoughts, feelings has two stages: a) a certain aspect of the client's behavior is ascertained; b) but (however) ... In contrast to the interpretation of confrontation, it directly refers to the causes and origins of the contradiction;
2) a confrontation to help see the situation as it really is, contrary to the client's perception of it in the context of his needs;
3) Confrontation in order to draw the client's attention to his avoidance of discussing some problems (you do not say anything about your sexual life);
16. Self-disclosure. The self-disclosure of a psychologist in the consultation process must take place strictly under the supervision of a professional personal position. However, you can not separate your own problems with the client.
Types of self-disclosure:
1) the expression of their immediate reactions to the client or the situation here and now & quot ;;
2) a story about your life experience, similar to the situation of the client.
17. Structuring of counseling. Structuring is the organization of the consultant's relations with the client, the allocation of individual stages of counseling, the evaluation of their results, and the provision of information to the client about the counseling process. Structuring occurs throughout counseling. Each new stage begins with an assessment of what has been achieved.
Table 4.3. Using counseling techniques at different stages of it
1. Establishing a contact
2. Question: a) the first phase - the formulation of hypotheses; b) the second phase is hypothesis testing
|a) Non-reflexive listening (echo, ugu-aga, non-verbal mirroring), b) techniques of reflexive listening (clarifying questions, paraphrase, retelling, reflection of feelings, resumption)|
Development of thoughts, interpretation, confrontation, information, self-disclosure
4. Exiting the contact
The main typical problems that clients address in a business organization (Istratova, Aksakusto, 2007).
1. Problems of career development and career growth.
Recently, career counseling has been developed, the goal of which is to help individuals solve their career development problems. Career development includes the process of selection, development, adaptation and promotion in the profession. Career development is a process of a lifetime that interacts dynamically with other aspects of life. The range of career problems includes, but is not limited to, the removal of uncertainty and indecisiveness in career choices, increased efficiency, stress management, adaptability, the problems of human and work environment mismatch, and inadequate or unsatisfactory integration of professional and other life roles (for example, roles of the parent, friend, citizen).
2. Problems of adaptation to changed environmental conditions (including a change in the type of activity, the start of a new business).
3. Problems of choice and decision-making in various complex situations.
4. Personal problems associated with critical or stressful situations in the life of the client.
5. Emotional problems associated with negative emotional states (stress, depression, anxiety, etc.).
6. Interpersonal problems related to the resolution of conflict situations or other problems of interpersonal communication with employees, subordinates, partners, etc.
It should be noted that this classification is rather arbitrary, and most often the psychologist works at the junction of a complex of problems, since they are often interrelated. So, career development problems often have roots in the client's personal or interpersonal problems.
It is also necessary to remember the limitations of the professional competence of the psychologist and use redirection if necessary. It can be especially relevant in the case of personal problems (it may require a readdress to the therapist, since the problem needs deep personal work) and emotional problems (it may be redirected to a psychotherapist or psychiatrist depending on the severity of the condition and anamnesis).< center>
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