Psychological education in the work of an education psychologist
Psychological education - the activities of a psychologist aimed at increasing the psychological literacy of clients (in our case: participants in the educational environment), and in the limit - the psychological culture of society.
The psychological literature describes the levels of psychological culture of an individual, the community. BS Gershunsky, exploring the philosophical problems of the mentality in education, suggests the following structural and meaningful relation of the concepts "culture" and "competence": the first level is literacy, where the subject knowledge is presented; competence - the ability to apply knowledge, culture - the value-semantic level of education (see Figure 2.2). Similarly, it is possible to imagine the hierarchy of the phenomena of psychological culture in the dynamics of its development. Psychological literacy - knowledge of psychological phenomena and patterns of a person's subjective psychological reality, ensuring adequate behavior and interaction; the next level - psychological competence - an integral characteristic of the personality, manifested in the ability to effectively use psychological knowledge in solving life problems; and, finally, the level of psychological culture - the value-semantic level of life.
The phenomenon of competence in psychological and pedagogical studies is considered as including several structural components:
- readiness to manifest this property in the activity, behavior of a person
- knowledge of means, methods, programs for performing actions, solving typical and creative tasks, implementing rules and norms of conduct;
- experience in the realization of knowledge, i.e. skills, skills;
- the value-semantic attitude to the content of the activity, its personal significance;
- emotional-volitional regulation of activity.
In determining competence as a learning goal, it is recommended to start from the model: competent - means: I want (motivational readiness), I know how (knowledge) I can (skill, skill, experience), I can evaluate the correctness of the decision, creatively change the mode of action in accordance with the situation (the block of personal qualities).
The difference between literacy and competence is in a different level of success in behavior. Knowledge without resources of experience of efficiency, personal qualities remain only at the level of awareness, do not influence the activity of the subject. The same levels of the genesis of psychological culture were identified in the studies of VV Semikin. The main criterion of psychological competence VV Semikin proposes to consider the effectiveness and success of social interaction.
Fig. 2.2. Hierarchy of levels of psychological culture"The highest level of development of psychological culture, he defines as" a mature psychological culture that serves as a universal psychological mechanism for the self-regulation of a person in various forms of social interaction, ensuring both effective, and safe, and humane interaction with people. "
It is impossible to tell about all potential psychological manifestations of Man, his interaction with others, it is impossible to convey in education all the skills necessary for the successful accomplishment of life's tasks, but the basic level of the value attitude to oneself, the world and the other will allow to discover, create an effective way of behavior in of each specific life situation. Therefore, psychological culture is the ultimate goal of psychological and pedagogical education, as well as the goal of self-development of the individual. When we try to determine the main criterion of a psychologically cultured person, we go to the level of spiritual values and personal maturity. This state must also be an attractor of the development of Man in the individual and cultural reality of existence.
The task of psychological education - to help people, non-specialists in the field of psychology, in understanding the possible psychological causes of difficulties in solving life problems: in understanding the features of the psychological reality of interpersonal relationships, self-relationship; reasons for school failure, difficulties in child-parent relations, ways to cope with stress, or motivation to achieve goals. V. Ya. Liaudis defines the theoretical and practical mastery of knowledge and methods of building communication and interaction with people in different conditions of their life as the goal of teaching psychology.
Thus, psychological education is carried out by a psychologist by methods of teaching psychological knowledge. It is important to understand that the specificity of psychological knowledge is that:
- professional psychological terms describe phenomena that have their own notation in ordinary language;
- this knowledge is easily verified by yourself, your life experience;
- it requires a sufficient level of personal reflection;
- it recognizes the high degree of uniqueness of individual human experience.
In the process of training, future psychologists master professional terminology in order to communicate in a professional environment. Each term is defined by significant signs - such a language helps to better understand what exactly the person who calls this term has in mind.
The client complains that he can not refuse to colleagues - in the understanding of different professional psychologists, this can refer to the lack of assertiveness skills, or low self-esteem; or limiting beliefs. In each case, the choice of a professional term describing the situation will entail a certain methodology: theoretical concepts, the results of empirical studies, the proposed methods of corrective-developing work. Behind any concept and scientific term is a whole "clip" scientific information. Therefore, for the professional communication of psychologists, it is extremely true to say: "how do you call the boat, so it will float."
Thus, in the process of professional development, the psychologist first learns to identify the phenomena of human life experience in a professional scientific language, and then, in the practice of psychological education, on the contrary: he has to translate from the scientific language into the language of everyday consciousness, the language of the client. >
As an example, I want to cite a comic example: on my skits, psychologists translated the text of a folk song in a professional language, and that's what happened.
The text of a folk song
Oh, the viburnum blooms in the field by the creek.
I fell in love with a young man.
The guy fell in love with his misfortune:
I can not open, I can not find the words.
My mind withers, disappears:
I fell in love with a complex subject.
I will not find a word for my confession,
In the plan, the semantic will disappear.
He lives without knowing anything about that,
What does a girl think about him.
At the creek from the Kalina falls color,
And the love of a girl does not go away, no.
He is such a pastor, without bad manners.
As I see it - the RAG jumps.
My object of attraction, sympathize with me:
I have frustration because of your fault.
And the girl's love is stronger every day.
How can I decide to tell about it?
I walk, not daring the will to give words.
My dear, good, guess yourself
We are not with you for my misfortune:
Slightly lower than the average I have IQ.
And according to Kelly, we are not related to you either:
You did not include me in your personal construct
Psychological knowledge is easily verified by yourself, your life experience. Hence, the following is a significant feature of enlightenment: a psychologist must master the phenomenology of life experience, which appears in the course of personal reflection of the experience of experiencing difficult situations and a reflexive analysis of the experience of surrounding people and clients. When, describing the scientific psychological regularity, the psychologist illustrates this with the phenomenology of experiencing recognized by every person and life situations, then the situation arises of recognizing oneself in psychological knowledge. If there is no such possibility for a person - the addressee of psychological enlightenment, then psychological knowledge is not recognized, understood or accepted. After good psychological texts written by professional psychologists, people respond with the words: "it's as if it's written about me!" or here about me!
An example of a quality artistic text describing the phenomenology of experience can be the stories of Yevgeny Grishkovets: "... There were two and a half years ahead. But they seemed endless. I felt that this was all for good. And not even the ship and the service ... And all this ... All this ... Life, filled with some duties, activities, deeds and people. I will need to live among and with all people. Why did I do this before and lived among people, but I never thought that I had to do it. And this ship, this form that I wear, this food that I eat, rules, statutes, laws and even words came up with other people. But they are different. They are different! They are not even that they are not like me, they are just not me! And so it was, and so it will be. So I will live ...
Another example of a popular psychological text.
What can be the outputs in a situation where there is no desire for movement, but they are absolutely impossible, blocked? You can stop and think about what happens and wait, and even more - you can go back: to the plateau from which you climbed this slope, which turned out to be too complicated. What does it mean to stop?
The associative series that arises in relation to this word: stay, not be in time, late, go, fall out, confusion, etc. That is, expectation is such a nervous process when you feel trapped: neither forward nor backward . And all the time thoughts about the fluidity of time, about the uselessness and meaninglessness of his current, like sand through your fingers ... Thus, there are two options for experiencing a situation of waiting on the path of life's aspirations: tense, nervous, with a sense of meaningless loss of time and a sense of inner stopping ; and expectation, filled with meaning, awareness of what is happening to you, openness to yourself and the world. Such a positive expectation is an immersion in the meaning of life, its very essence. As if in a pine forest - you look at the age-old trees and internally freeze, feeling that in fact everything has its time ... There is another dimension of time-space: the inner one. And this clock goes according to its rhythm. It is important to stop and feel their progress. Allow yourself this. This expectation is a fading in anticipation of the Miracle. And it's great now, and it does not matter what happens next.
There is such a rule of self-help on the waters; if you hit a water funnel - you do not have to try to swim (it will still tighten), but dive into the very depths and come up elsewhere. Positive expectation is such diving into the very essence of the situation of the impossibility of movement, the impossibility of realizing the goals at the moment, in order to feel the "twist of the funnel of life" and to come up in its other sense and with other resources.
In order for a person to recognize himself in psychological phenomenology in the course of psychological enlightenment, a sufficient level of personal reflection is required. Therefore, enlightenment is only possible from adolescence and older; junior schoolchildren and preschool children can only be taught to individual words denoting psychological phenomena and to observe these phenomena in surrounding people.
And the last difficulty that can arise in the course of psychological enlightenment is the objections of listeners that their particular case differs from the general pattern. This is a consequence of the high degree of uniqueness of individual human experience. General patterns often manifest themselves through very individual phenomena, beyond which they are not visible. But also due to the fact that each person is unique in his own way, not one is completely within the general framework.
It turns out a very interesting paradox: each person is unique and therefore the process of knowing another is infinitely interesting, but in each unique case one can see a general psychological pattern.
Types of educational activities in an educational institution : contact, distant. Contact - with the direct contact of a psychologist and client, clients (participants of the educational space). Distant means that the contact is mediated: printed texts, video, audio recordings.
Forms of education in education ', information stands of psychological service in an educational institution, in a hostel (in universities); publication of articles in school and student newspapers, on the pages of Internet resources (educational institution sail, social networks), educational lectures, discussions, social events, competitions, parental meetings, pedagogical councils, conferences, consultations.
In educational activities, social ( social and pedagogical ) technologies that are aimed at creating conditions for increasing psychological literacy can be used.
These technologies include the following.
1. Technologies of the organization of educational actions.
2. Technology organization of competitions (for example, contests of social advertising against the use of psychologically active substances or advertising for a healthy lifestyle).
3. Technologies for conducting educational lectures.
4. Technologies of cultural and leisure activities.
5. Technologies of psychological and pedagogical support of professional and personal formation of students.
6. Technologies for attracting relatives and direct students to participate in programs of preventive activities.
7. Information social technologies of information placement in the Internet space (social networks).
The pedagogical and linguistic competence of the psychologist in education. Thus, the education psychologist in the educational activity, in addition to luggage of active psychological knowledge, psychological competence, must have literary skills - for writing a quality text and oratorical skills - for productive public speaking.
Let us dwell in more detail on the psycholinguistic competence of a psychologist in educational work. They include:
- scientific psychological knowledge, including psycholinguistics;
- knowledge of the theory and methods of distant psychological counseling;
- philological knowledge (semantics, style of texts, types of psychological articles, etc.);
- the skills associated with defining the specifics and themes of the created psychological texts, writing popular science articles, commenting on other texts on the Internet, responding appropriately to the aggressive behavior of users of the Internet environment, interpreting and translating scientific theories, the skills of bibliotherapy and distance counseling.
The structure of a popular or popular science article can be this:
1) statement of the problem (client's question, description of the problem situation);
2) a description of the phenomenology of experiencing the problem. Examples from cultural texts (including parables, sayings, songs, tales, etc.);
3) the solution options for the problem that are used most often (here it is customary to write about non-productive ways);
4) recommendations on productive ways of coping.
In a popular science article in the disclosure of a solution
Problems should be given descriptions of the experiments during which these solutions were found.
(See task 22 to chapter 2.)
Specializations that are adjacent to this unit of competence are a practical psychologist, a philologist (writer).
The Internet is one of the main sources of psychological knowledge. Popular scientific psychology on the Internet is presented in this way:
- popular sites - libraries;
- author sites, sites of psychological centers;
- blogs of psychologists-consultants;
- electronic media (specialized);
- Popular magazines and posts on information sites.
All the information that can be found on the Internet and in the products of book publishing can be divided into scientific, popular science and popular. Scientific-Popular articles on psychology is very small. Most often, the article's ego on the tasks of psychological counseling and articles for parents. We can recommend the two most high-quality popular science journals on psychology: "Psychologies", "Our psychology". They exist both in print and in electronic form.
Basic content shortcomings of popular psychological texts :
- communication of personal experience instead of science-based;
- mixing of professional and personal values: on behalf of a professional psychologist, private assessments are reported and questionable advice is given;
- the fragmentation of the presentation, both the phenomenology of the problem, and recommendations for its resolution;
- the use in popular articles of psychological professional terminology, which makes them inaccessible to understanding the broad masses;
- the lack of a clear orientation toward the client group: if an article is posted on the stand at the school, which will give recommendations to both parents and teachers, most likely, neither one nor the other will read it;
- language, semantic errors.
The most simple advice for those psychologists who want to learn how to write popular psychological texts.
1. First, collect information for the article and then write.
2. Having a plan will help to gather your thoughts and not be distracted.
3. If you write a long article, this is a signal that you are not sufficiently knowledgeable about the topic. It's better to spend another hour gathering information.
4. Read the editions of the format in which you most often write. Easy syllable and catchy style are contagious, you can learn from colleagues at an intuitive level if you read a lot.
(See task 23 to chapter 2.)
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