PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATIONAL-EDUCATIONAL WORK WITH CHILDREN AWARENING DEVIATIONS IN MENTAL DEVELOPMENT
In the material presented below, along with children with deviations in mental development, traditional children will be considered in the traditional sense, because deviations can be directed both to the direction of decrease, ie, to decrease. delay, underdevelopment, and in the direction of recovery.
Children with Developmental Disabilities
This category includes children with a temporary delay in mental development, with asthenic, reactive states, conflict experiences. The causes of these disorders are different, but they are united by the following: these children do not have organic brain damage.
Children with psychophysical or mental infantilism and those who have infantileism combined with a delay in the development of cognitive activity, ie, children with psychiatric or mental infantility, are included in the category of children with a temporary delay in mental development. voluntary attention, logical memorization, spatial representations, perception, thinking, etc. The reasons for the delay may be: toxicosis or maternal eating disorders during pregnancy; prematurity due to the fact that during pregnancy, the mother suffered a viral infection, malaria, hepatitis, typhoid fever; light birth trauma, fetal asphyxia (lack of oxygen supply to the fetus due to torsion of the umbilical cord, etc.). If the child in the first year of life has had dyspepsia or dysentery, he may also experience a delay in development. Such children later begin to walk, talk, have a small weight and height, they have strangeness in the emotional-volitional sphere. In the senior school age, they retain the features of younger preschoolers: the leading activity is the game for a long time; there is a directness in behavior, self-service skills are not developed.
At preschool age, these children are not particularly distinguished from the general mass, as they do not have to meet strictly regulated requirements, but already in school they make you pay attention. They do not work well
in the training activities, do not perceive and do not perform school assignments, behave like in a kindergarten. They have no school interests, are obligatory in relation to the fulfillment of the proposed task, they hardly master the skills of writing and reading, quickly become tired, suffer from headaches. Children with psychophysical infantilism do not have intellectual insufficiency: they can understand the meaning of the story they read, correctly decompose the proposed series of pictures, understand the meaning of the plot picture. Such children need an individual approach from the very beginning of the training and with the correct pedagogical approach, learning difficulties can be overcome.
As mentioned above, the category of children with a temporary developmental delay includes children who have infantilism combined with some delay in the development of cognitive activity. They have insufficient overall development, which, in combination with learning difficulties, can be misdiagnosed as oligophrenia.
So, sometimes developmental delays can concern only the emotional-volitional sphere, in other cases, the delay in the development of thinking joins in this, but such children are always characterized by features of younger children and in teaching they require a special pedagogical approach.>
Children with asthenic conditions. Any adverse factors, be it somatic infections, minor injuries or very slight focal brain lesions, as well as long and severe experiences, fatigue primarily affect the central nervous system and can cause functional disorders of mental activity. Depending on the causes that caused the asthenic condition, distinguish between cerebral and somatogenic asthenia.
The reason cerebral asthenia is that the circulation of fluid in the brain is disturbed. This can happen either as a result of a concussion or an inflammatory focus in the brain, even a small, narrow-cut. In inflammatory brain processes and cranial injuries, the amount of cerebrospinal fluid may increase and then its circulation is impaired.
A characteristic feature of cerebral asthenia is a violation of intellectual activity with the primary preserved intelligence. During work, such children quickly become fatigued, nervous exhaustion occurs, and headaches occur. As a result, the working capacity is disrupted, memory and attention are weakened, children are poorly concentrated during the task or they are easily distracted by the department. In behavior, this is expressed as follows: some children are overly excited, restless, excessively mobile, irritable, tearful, others, on the contrary, sluggish, timid, slow, inhibited, insecure. Such children often refuse to answer at the lesson because of the fear of saying something wrong.
Causes somatogenic asthenia are physical weakness, somatic diseases (diseases of internal organs, cardiovascular system), childhood infectious diseases.
Peculiarities of asthenia in cases of internal diseases are most characteristic in children with slow-onset tuberculous intoxication. This is expressed in the fact that children quickly become tired, they have headaches, irritability, a tendency to whims, tearfulness, sleep disorder, loss of appetite, mood instability, low stamina, motor anxiety. The emotional state of these children is unstable, so they are sensitive to unfavorable conditions in the classroom and at home. In behavior, this can manifest itself in different ways: some become rude, irritable, aggressive, disobedient, others - shy, crying, timid, others - closed, sullen.
Reducing academic achievement, asthenic conditions, and behavioral difficulties may occur in the child as a result of long-term separation from school due to infectious diseases such as measles, whooping cough, chickenpox, scarlet fever, severe viral hepatitis, etc. These children are not only gaps in knowledge and physical weakness, but also changes in behavior. They become irritable, crying, quickly tired, badly included in the work of the class. Therefore, it is necessary to properly organize pedagogical and medical support, which will eventually overcome the consequences of infectious asthenia.
Reactive states are understood as neuropsychic disorders that occur in a child as a result of a traumatic situation in his psyche. Neuropsychiatric disorders in reactive conditions in children are manifested in different ways. It depends on the severity and severity of the traumatic situation, the duration of its impact, the age of the child, the general state of his health and
Individual characteristics of personality. The manifestations of reactive states include stammering, tick-twitching in different parts of the body, fears, incontinence, and sometimes feces.
In acute acute traumatic situations, children develop frustration of consciousness of the type of twilight, i.e. Such, when the child makes a number of actions and actions, which he does not remember later. Some children become very fussy, commit aimless movements, unmotivated actions, while others, on the contrary, become stiff and freeze. In the younger school age, temporary loss of certain functions can be observed, for example temporary deafness, mutism (refusal of speech), etc. Teens have violations of the entire emotional-volitional sphere: fear, anxiety, depression, refusal to eat, stupor, etc.
One of the traumatic situations affecting the behavior and nature of the child is enuresis (urinary incontinence). This disorder mainly occurs in nervous and physically weakened children who have experienced prolonged nervous tension or shock, fear, somatic disease. They have a feeling of inferiority, which also manifests itself in different ways. Some become very timid, shy, fearful, indecisive, others, on the contrary, become bitter, become irritable and aggressive. Both those and others sometimes have fears that are directly related to urinary incontinence. Then there are other fears: darkness, new deeds, new surroundings, new people.
Very painful experiences due to physical defects (lameness, strabismus, myopia, hunchback, etc.) and nervous manifestations (stammering, nervous twitching, fears, etc.). If the adult's attitude towards them is incorrect, a child may experience a feeling of inferiority, which in the future will lead to isolation, behavioral disorders, and sometimes to a decrease in academic performance.
Conflict experiences occur in children as a result of an internal conflict, which can also disrupt mental development. They are the consequence of psychogenic factors that injure the child in the family or school. The cause of internal conflict is a difficult, long-term experience, which at some point becomes unbearable for the child. A prolonged and seemingly insoluble conflict can lead to changes in behavior and character, as well as inhibit the mental development of the child.
School conflicts with timely and correct understanding by adults are resolved faster and painlessly than family conflicts. However, when school conflicts are not understood by teachers and parents, when the child is not helped in time, his condition may deteriorate and lead to leaving the school or pushing the path of antisocial behavior.
Changes in character and behavioral disorders can be the result of raising a child at preschool age, if he is overly indulged, they can do whatever he wants, fulfill all his whims and desires. Irritability, lack of restraint, nervousness, lack of organization of parents can also be the causes of negative manifestations. As a rule, children copy the behavior of elders, which affects their behavior in school. Difficulties in the behavior of children can be due to the unfavorable situation at home, when children witness quarrels, scandals, drunkenness. Such children often create a negative attitude towards others, which prevents them from establishing contact at school and to study well, despite the initially preserved intellect. Similar problems can arise in well-to-do families if the correct upbringing and proper control of the child were not provided in a timely manner.
Overcoming the difficulties in the behavior of these children is a very difficult matter. First of all, it is necessary for the educator to understand the state of the child, to know the reasons that caused this condition, to implement the correct individual approach to him, to establish emotional contact with the child; included him in extracurricular work; built the educational process, relying on its positive qualities.
In the re-education of such children, an important role is played by working with the family. It is necessary to conduct explanatory work with parents: talk about the age characteristics of their children and the reasons that caused difficulties in behavior. It is important to remember that moralizing, complaining, and instructive actions are ineffective. It is necessary to search for each child individually.
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