Psychological Research Samples: Correlational & Qualitative

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH METHODS

Research Subject matter 1: What's the role of visible attention in dyslexia?

Basic Research Way: Correlational

Background research

Literature Search: I conducted a literature search on the "web of knowledge" data source, which was chosen as it is a complete text database enabling easy access to any articles of interest. The initial search used only one keyword, "dyslexia" which returned over 18, 000 results. Additional keywords were then used to filter the serp's, these keywords were; "visual, attention". Originally the searches were predicated on matter and then improved to title to reduce the results further. From here citation searching was used which developed a lead into specifically children and visual attention deficits as early predictions of reading disabilities. The keywords were once again expanded to add "(children or kindergarten)"

Annotated Bibliography:

Franceschini, S. , Gori, S. , RufЇno, M. Pedrolli, K. , and Facoetti, A. (2012). A causal website link between aesthetic spatial attention and reading acquisition. The studies argue that problems in visible attention have the ability to forecast future reading talents and could be a lot more important in explaining dyslexia than recently thought. The results illustrated that children's performance on visual spatial attention forecasted their reading capabilities later in their college life. The analysts further conclude that the findings "virtually close not only a long-lasting controversy on the causal role of aesthetic spatial attention deficits in dyslexia". This research suggests that aesthetic attention is a assured way to forecast the near future development of dyslexia.

Catts, H. W. , Fey, M. E. , Zhang, X. , & Tomblin, J. B. (2001). Estimating the chance of future reading complications in kindergarten children. The researchers found that a number of variables predicted future reading problems, specifically five variables; letter identification, word imitation, phonological understanding, fast naming and mother's education. While these conclusions do not specifically talk about dyslexia as the singular difficulty it is interesting to note that a merged measures approach seems to really have the best accuracy in regards to predicting future reading troubles, which would include dyslexia. While Franceschini argues that visible attention is enough, Catts' demonstrates the probable of false positives in singular procedures which would not serve to recognize children looking for intervention.

Hypothesis or research question: Can early on detection of visible attention deficits accurately predict reading disabilities such as dyslexia.

Research Proposal

Method: A longitudinal analysis where the improvement of children from the age of 5 would be used through to the age of 7. The children would be determined prior to formal reading education and informed written consent would be obtained prior to tests. All trials would be conducted over a computer because it offers an accurate, objective and highly adaptable system that will require minimal training to operate. In a modern world children would also know about a computer and be able to recognise and interact with its peripherals. This familiarity should reduce any anxiety a child may feel producing a less stressful testing environment. Another benefit of utilizing a computer based screening suite is the fact that testing could be administered remotely, whereby the utilization of your webcam and distant desktop would allow an experimenter to monitor the test from a distant location. This might potentially reduce any issues with drop-out as children who move could still participate.

The sample size for this study would need to be fair large, more than 100 children, signifying a number of classes from different regions of the country would have to be approached. Once the children had been selected they might be initially examined for print recognition, phonological processing and language capacities. This would enable a baseline for each and every subject to be established on which their reading development could be compared. Subsequently a visible attention test would be administered and the kids would be reassessed over a every year basis for end-of-year reading success. The children will also go through Dyslexia Early Verification Test (DEST) administered by their instructors to help expand identify children who may put up with dyslexia later in life.

Materials: All testing will be conducted on a computer since it offers a precise, objective and highly flexible system that requires minimal training to use. Superlab would be used to reproduce two duties using complete and partial letter-strings created by Averbach et al 1961. The complete report process would present five letters (e. g. W H J N S) to the kids briefly and have for a report on as many of the characters as they could keep in mind. The partial job would present a similar list; however, a cued notice would be proclaimed briefly and the kids asked to survey only that letter.

Data Research: A 2 x 2 merged research of variance (ANOVA) design where the within-subjects factor whole and incomplete letter-strings. Children would on average in the whole task have the ability to recall 4-5 characters, while children with visual attention deficits would be likely to remember fewer. Another interesting examination is always to analyse which letter positions would be most regularly remembered or disregarded. For the partial activity children with aesthetic attention deficits would be expected to answer improperly more frequently than those who not continue to build up dyslexia.

Potential limits of method chosen: A longitudinal research poses a number of problems. Participant drop-out is one particular problem, whereby, children who complete the study may differ from children who have left the study resulting in examination that's not representative. You have the probability that children who would not have problems with reading disabilities yet show visual attention deficits could drop-out of the study and vice versa. Such shifts in participant representation could potentiality distort the results which would create issues in assessing route of causality.

Research Theme 2: Whatare young women's experience of mixed-sex friendships?

Basic Research Way: Qualitative

Background research

Literature Search: I at first considered the study theme and developed a set of keywords to begin a search. Those keywords were: friendship, mixed-sex, and women. The initial search was performed on the "web of knowledge" data source, which offers usage of a vast collection of full wording articles, making for easy navigation to areas of interest. These brought back no articles of interest or relevance, however, a new keyword was found; "cross-sex" which was used to replace "mixed-sex" resulting in a relevant manageable set of results.

Annotated Bibliography:

Benefit or burden? Interest in cross-sex companionship (2012) By: Bleske-Rechek, April; Somers, Erin; Micke, Cierra; et al. Shows that women and men do experience cross-sex friendships diversely. The researcher's argue that the experiences men and women have shows their evolved mating strategies. Interest between cross-sex friends is common and seen as a burden.

The obstacle of sexual attraction within heterosexuals' cross-sex friendship (2009) By: Halatsis, Panayotis; Christakis, Nicolas will abide by the prior research that attraction in cross-sex friendships is both common and a burden. However, the experts claim that if that interest is indicated the companionship prevails most of enough time.

While this research illustrates the problems experienced in cross-sex friendships when sexual attraction is engaged, it cannot be the only difficulty such friendships face. Also, the great things about these more recent companionship styles would appear to outweigh these negatives, so a closer inspection of these positives might maintain order.

Hypothesis or research question: Young women will mostly experience cross-sex friendships in different ways to men.

Research Proposal

Method: The interview method will be used and you will be semi-structured, noted digitally and focuses on encounters women have with mixed-sex friendships. The interviews will be in a place convenient for the participant but silent enough as to not cause distraction. The interviews should last roughly one hour long where individuals will first of all be asked to spell it out any significant a friendly relationship they have got with men. The primary focus of the interview will be on activities the participant has relating these cross-sex friendships and therefore will focus on issues, incidents, people and erotic attraction. As a result interview questions will cover the following themes
  1. Friendship challenges
  2. Sexuality
  3. Friendship benefits
  4. Sexual attraction
  5. Friends as family

The interviews will then be transcribed and subjected to a discourse examination.

The participants for this study would have to be those who were currently involved with at least one cross-sex companionship. There would be no pre-requisite on the sexuality of the participant or friend(s) and therefore locating individuals would be based on advert. Place an add in a local publication or social press site and have members volunteer to participate. If this technique was not sufficient to accrue enough participants a snowball sampling method could be employed.

Materials: A tape recorder, transcription software such as ExpressScribe, a set of questions that will form the platform of the interview; e. g. Do you think you're in a cross-sex a friendly relationship? How long perhaps you have and ___ been friends?

Data Analysis: The transcripts will be read and coded frequently and issues and styles will be generated from the info rather than predetermined list. First themes or templates will be modified and reassessed every time the transcript is read and re-coded. This will be a time-consuming process as each transcript should be compared for broader developments in themes. This will allow for the era of an extremely rich bank account of how young women experience cross-sex friendships. I'd however expect one of the themes or templates to be structured around sexuality; it would show up, especially with the "fag-hag" trend, that lots of of the cross-sex friendships involve gay men and heterosexual women.

Potential constraints of method chosen: The procedure of examination will be closely time-consuming. Also, a face-to-face interview may cause interviewer effects, whereby an inexperienced interviewer may lead the interviewee rendering their data unproductive.

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