Psychological support of the educational process of...

Psychological support of the educational process of children left without parental care

As a result of studying this chapter, students should:

know

• general characteristics of the category of children left without parental care;

• principles of constructing variative models of the adaptive-developing environment for children left without parental care;

be able to

• To be guided in features of a social situation of development of teenagers who have remained without care of parents;

• give an example of psychological support for the educational process of children left without parental care;

own

• Methods of psychological analysis of the social situation, in which there are children left without parental care.

In the category of children left without parental care, there are, firstly, children with an officially recognized status "left without parental care", i.e. those who, due to various vital circumstances, are excommunicated by a decision of state bodies from a biological family and live in a foster home, custodial or foster family (related or non-native). Secondly, children from the so-called group of hidden social orphanhood. The risk group for social orphanage includes de-adapted families, families with low social status, low-income families with many children. Children, living in their own family, are left to themselves, deprived of care and attention. More than 50% of juvenile offenders grew up in an incomplete family, more than 30% of children with mental disabilities grew up without a father. In the psychosocial status of children of both groups, the general indicators are: negative experience acquired in a complex life situation, the presence of psychological trauma in the early stages of ontogenesis, deviations of various degrees in mental development.

The problem of psychological health and emotional well-being of adolescents who have been left without parental care is the key in the work of psychologists of the general education school. Timely and qualitative diagnosis, adequate psycho-preventive and corrective measures can prevent the emergence of undesirable trends in the development of the personality and the emergence of various forms of deviant behavior, difficulties in the activities of adolescents.

The solution of this task is possible only with the full implementation of the multidisciplinary principle of the psychological service of the educational institution. This principle assumes a joint longitudinal work of representatives of various specialties in the management of each individual case. An integrated approach to solving the age, educational, personal problems of a teenager left without parental care should be carried out by a commission consisting of: a psychologist, a class teacher, a social teacher, a representative of the administration, and a member of the parent committee.

The most acute problem is with teenagers. In the essay, the substantiation of the main line of work with teenagers deprived of parental care is given: the development of psychological readiness for independent life, the formation of their socio-psychological competencies. Particular attention is paid to identifying the parameters of psychological readiness for independent life, principles and stages of psycho-preventive work have been developed. The psychological difficulties of adolescents who have fallen into a difficult life situation are revealed, and recommendations are given to a psychologist on individual work.

In accordance with the "Convention on the Rights of the Child"; (1989) and the "World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children" (1993), the "Education Act" (1992, amendment 2007), each child is guaranteed the right to education and education in accordance with his individual abilities. The provisions reflected in these documents provide legal protection for childhood, raise the status of the family as a natural child's environment, protect the health, upbringing, development and education of children, as well as support those who are in particularly difficult circumstances.

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