Psychology of a mentally retarded child - Age psychology

Psychology of a mentally retarded child

Mentally retarded refers to a child whose cognitive activity is persistently impaired by organic brain damage.

The impression of the mentally retarded can be produced by deaf-mute children, if they did not study in a specialized kindergarten, children who had suffered from tuberculosis of bones for several years, lying in plaster, living among foreign-speaking population. But these are not mentally retarded children. Pedagogically neglected children, even with undeveloped cognitive processes, also will not be considered as such, because for mentally retarded children there should be a combination of two signs: 1) cognitive impairment and 2) organic brain damage, caused this violation.

The category of mentally retarded children include oligophrenics: morons, imbeciles and idiots.

Oligophrenia, which in United States means "low-mindedness", is not the name of any particular disease. Oligophrenia is a clinically heterogeneous group. This is the name of the state that occurs after various types of damage to the central nervous system of the child in the period before the development of his speech, i.e. up to one or two years of life. The causes of oligophrenia can be hereditary and intrauterine damages of the fetus, birth trauma, fetal asphyxia and other diseases affecting the central nervous system of the child until about two years of age. The features of oligophrenia are as follows: the early period of damage to the central nervous system and the subsequent cessation of the disease. When oligophrenic mental development of the child occurs on a defective basis. But since in this case the disease is not of a lasting nature, the child is considered to be practically healthy.

The psyche of a child-oligophrenia in many respects is not similar to the psyche of a normal child. The immaturity of higher intellectual processes combined with excessive stagnancy of behavior creates a qualitatively distinctive picture of mental development.

Oligophrenia varies in severity. It is accepted to distinguish three degrees of mental retardation: debility (the easiest), imbecility (deeper), idiocy (the heaviest).

The morons result in a relatively high level of mental development as a result of training. They become independent citizens, are responsible for their actions, master professions that require medium qualification, have the right to own houses, build houses, create families, etc. Mental retardation in degree

moribundity can not be causal insanity, disability, incapacity of a person. To military service do not admit morons.

Imbeciles - are deeply retarded children. They do not learn general concepts, rules of arithmetic, grammar, they have difficulty mastering the skills of reading and writing. Independently live imbeciles can not, because they need custody and supervision, although they can be adapted to certain types of production piles. They can bring up elementary skills and skills at home, if they are engaged in a specialist who is called oligophrenopedagogue.

Children idiots do not develop thinking and speaking, lack of self-service skills, disrupted the coordination of movement. Such children need special care that the family can not provide, therefore they are in social security institutions.

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