Psychology of modern times. The Birth of European...

Psychology of the New Time. The origin of European science

New time (XVI-XVII centuries.) is characterized, first of all, by the birth of science, the formation of a scientific worldview.

This period is associated with large geographical discoveries (Columbus, Vasco before Gama, Magellan), achievements in mechanics (the invention of a chronometer, microscope and telescope), the spread of printing on paper (rather than parchment, birch bark or papyrus, as before), the emergence of Galileo's experimental physics, with criticism of Aristotle's physics, and finally, with a belated coup in the worldview, cosmology called the Copernican revolution, (a change in the geocentric system of the universe heliocentric). This period symbolized not only the scientific, but also the cultural ascent of Europe, which prepared the Enlightenment.

From the XVII century. a new epoch begins in the development of psychological knowledge. The bodies of man and animals began to be viewed as complex machines, but the theory continued that the work of the human body, unlike the body of animals, was regulated not by organic needs and not by external influences, but a soul having a divine origin (R. Descartes).

An attempt to reconnect the body and soul of man, separated by a dualistic doctrine, was again undertaken by the Dutch philosopher B. Spinoza. At the same time, the well-known principle of determinism - universal causation and the natural scientific explanation of any phenomena - was introduced from the time of Democritus. In science he entered in the form of Spinoza's next statement: "The order and connection of ideas are the same as the order and connection of things."

T. Hobbes developed an idea of ​​the state, based on the concepts of sensations, representations, speech and other psyches, yugic categories.

Ancestor of empirical psychology, i.e. psychology as a science of inner experience, the English philosopher D. Locke appeared. His name is associated with the emergence of the doctrine that a person from birth is a "clean board" on which time can write any letters. The meaning of this doctrine consisted in the affirmation of the idea that the person has no innate abilities. There was an idea of ​​reflexion as a special ability of the soul to self-analysis and self-knowledge.

Let's turn to the analysis of the representations of the leading thinkers of modern times.

The founder of British empiricism, a herald of the future development of empirical science has become Francis Bacon (1561-1626). Being from an aristocratic family, F. Bacon achieved success in legal and political activities. In the period from 1617 to 1621 he even served as Lord Privy Great Seal and Lord Chancellor. The political career of the thinker ended after the accusation of his parliament in political intrigues and corruption.

F. Bacon is known primarily as a philosopher obsessed with the idea of ​​practical application of knowledge. "Scientia potentia est" ("Knowledge is power"), he proclaimed. The philosopher attached special value to the practical orientation of scientific knowledge, considering it really worthwhile, as opposed to knowing the scholastic. His own philosophy was openly opposed by Bacon to medieval scholasticism.

The main work of F. Bacon - "New Organon". In it, the thinker tried to create a new scientific method - the deductive logic of Aristotle, set forth in the work of Organon, he contrasted the logic with the inductive one. Deduction is a movement in the course of knowledge from the general to the particular. Bacon proposed the opposite move - to go to general knowledge through the private, through observation and experiment.

Bacon believed that people have many prejudices and misconceptions. He proposed their classification by putting forward the theory of the four idols (ghosts) of the mind.

Idols of the Family or Tribe. The ghost of the race is inherent in the very nature of man. Since birth, a person is doomed to the fact that he considers all things subjectively, through the prism of himself. To ghosts of the genus include anthropomorphism, the vitalization of nature or hylozoism (the world is a living organism). People tend to give natural objects a function of goal-setting (to expect that everything in nature acts in accordance with some goals, ultimate causes).

The idols of the Cave are peculiar only to individual individuals, since they are born from the individual characteristics of a person. Everyone has his own separate cave. He gives out his personal interpretation for what exists in reality. Bacon said that the human mind has wings, but it would be nice to tie the weights to them so that a person lands and gets up on the facts.

The idols of the Square or Market are born in the speech communication of people, during which people imagine that their mind commands words. People often do not understand each other because they put different meanings in words. Idols of the Square impede the mutual relations of people.

Idols of Theater or Theory are generated by blind faith in authorities, especially in traditional philosophical systems or religious doctrines. Bacon introduced the term "philosophical theater", the essence of which boils down to the fact that people accept the thought of old philosophers for truth without analysis, without research.

The main philosophical works F. Bacon wrote after his resignation. His work is most popular under the name Experiences - a real storehouse of practical, worldly wisdom. In the Experiments Bacon actively used one of the main methods of practical philosophy - the method of antitheses. He expounded the arguments for and against the thesis, leaving the reader to draw a final conclusion.

Bacon's philosophy was ideologically prepared by the natural philosophy of the Renaissance and the tradition of English nominalism. Bacon supported the materialistic traditions of the preceding philosophy and criticized the scholasticism of the Peripatetics, the mysticism of the Pythagoreans, the idealism of the Platonists, the agnosticism of the skeptics. Ancient Greek natural philosophers attracted Bacon in that they understood matter as an active principle; with special approval, he perceived the atomistic philosophy of Democritus. Bacon's attitude to ancient philosophy and mythology was vividly expressed in his unfinished treatise "On origins and origins ..." and in the collection "On the wisdom of the ancients."

The categories of scholastic philosophy, speculative reasoning about God, nature and man Bacon opposed the doctrine of "natural" philosophy, which is based on experienced knowledge, but not free from terminological and conceptual borrowings from the teachings of peripatetics.

His considerations related to the foresight of the huge role of science in the life of mankind, with the search for an effective method of scientific research, with the elucidation of the prospects for the development of science and its practical applications, multiplying the power of man and his power over nature, Bacon expounded in unfinished work "Great restoration of sciences ", which included tracts" On the dignity and augmentation of the sciences "," New Organon, or True Instructions for the interpretation of nature " and a series of works dealing with the "natural history", individual phenomena and processes of nature ("Preparation for natural and experimental history ...", "History of winds", "History of life and death", "History of dense and rarefied and about the contraction and expansion of matter in space "," Natural history in the ten centurions ", etc.).

Bacon developed a detailed classification of sciences, including indications of those disciplines that were yet to be created; substantiated the empirical method and described various types of experimental knowledge (fruitful and light-bearing experiments, different methods and modifications of the experiment).

Propagating science, Bacon differentiated areas of scientific knowledge and religious belief, believing that religion should not interfere in the affairs of science. He accepted Christianity as a religion of revelation, seeing in him one of the connecting forces of society.

As a statesman and political writer, Bacon was a supporter of the absolutist monarchy, the military, maritime and political might of the nation state. He sympathized with the aspirations of those sections of society that focused on the benefits of commercial and industrial development and strong royal power. His economic program was mercantilistic in nature. In the utopian novel "New Atlantis" Bacon outlined the project of the state organization of science. The prerogative of the House of Solomon (in fact, the scientific and technical center of a utopian society) were to be not only the organization and planning of scientific research and technical inventions, but also the disposal of production and natural resources of the country, the introduction of the achievements of science and technology in the economy and life.

Bacon's philosophy, developed in the atmosphere of scientific and cultural growth of Europe on the eve of bourgeois revolutions, had a huge impact on the whole era of philosophical and scientific development. Bacon vividly expressed the spirit of the new science. His classification of knowledge was accepted by the French encyclopedists; his teaching laid the materialist tradition in the philosophy of modern times; Inductive methodology has become the starting point for the development of inductive logic; Solomon House served as a prototype of scientific societies and academies.

The founder of modern Western philosophy, who did much for physiology, psychology, physics, mathematics, was René Descartes (1596-1650).

Essential works of Descartes - "Discourses on the Method", "Metaphysical Reflections", "The Beginnings of Philosophy", "Rules for Leadership of the Mind" and others. He became the creator of modern algebra and analytical geometry and one of the founders of mechanics.

Descartes was born in France, studied at the Jesuit College, was educated in the law in 1616. He traveled extensively in Germany, Italy, Holland and France. For some time he served in the army. From 1629 until his death he lived in the Netherlands.

Descartes was completely dissatisfied with the knowledge that he acquired in the Jesuit college and which reflected the state of the philosophy of that time. He sought to revise all past traditions, but unlike Bacon, he did not turn to experience, but to reason. The basis for the transformation of philosophy, Descartes considered mathematics. Being both a mathematician and a philosopher, Descartes set himself the task of creating a philosophy anew, establishing it on the unshakable foundations of undoubted knowledge.

In one of his works, Descartes wrote that he was not comfortable with desk scholarship, and that everything can be found in the "great book of the world and in himself" and all his life followed this principle. First of all, he studied the world and therefore did not read the works of other authors, considering that it was not worth wasting time. Descartes was an experimenter and researcher than he resembled Galileo, and clutched at everything that could give practical application, so he was not only a philosopher, but also a researcher.

Descartes rejected the sterility of speculative scholastic philosophy and contrasted it with such a practical philosophy, by which, knowing the strength and action of fire, water, air, stars, heavens and all other bodies surrounding us, a person could use the right way and become the master nature.

Practical method of Descartes consisted in the transition from the general to the particular, the basis of which was always mathematics. He believed that all sciences should be subordinate to mathematics: it must have the status of "universal mathematics, for it contains everything that makes others called parts of mathematics". This meant that the cognition of nature is a cognition of all that can be fixed mathematically.

Descartes associated scientific thinking with philosophical principles and sought to bring this relationship into a rational basis. Therefore, he is considered the founder of modern Western philosophy.

Descartes sought to build scientific knowledge in a rational, systematic way, and this is only possible if it is built on an obvious and reliable statement. Such a statement Descartes considered the proposition: "I think, therefore, I exist" (Cogito, ergo sum). Descartes believed that everything must be questioned, since it is possible to doubt everything except thinking. Even thoughts are wrong, anyway people reflect when they come to him. Descartes used the term thinking to encompass all conscious spiritual activity. The philosopher believed that since thinking is the only attribute of the soul, it thinks always, always knows about its mental content, visible from within; unconscious psyche does not exist.

If for Bacon the initial certainty was to rely on sensory cognition, experience, then Descartes as a rationalist was convinced that feelings can deceive a person and that one can not rely on them. He also believed that one can not trust authorities, since the question arises as to where their reliability comes from. Descartes needed such a foundation, which would not cause any doubt. He wrote that if you drop everything and declare it false everything you can doubt, then we can assume that there is no God, heaven, body, but we can not say that we do not exist who thus think. For it is unnatural to think that what thinks does not exist. Therefore, the fact that is expressed by the words: "I think, therefore, I exist"; - is the most reliable for those who correctly philosophize.

Cogito Descartes closely associated with the development of primarily mathematics, natural science. Descartes argued that only arithmetic and geometry contain something authentic and unquestionable. And in a dream and in reality, he said, two plus three always equals five, and the rectangle has no more than four sides. It is impossible for such obvious truths to be questioned. So the philosopher came to the concept of "innate ideas".

With his teaching, Descartes laid the foundations of dualism - the opposition of two substances: thinking and matter.

He recognized that thinking and matter do not depend on each other. Substance is a thing that, for its existence, does not need anything but itself.

The mechanics for Descartes acted as the most important concretization of "universal mathematics". Mechanism of Descartes was manifested in all other fields of research, in particular in explaining the nature of the activity of plant and especially animal organisms. He was the forerunner of the discovery of unconditioned responses of the organism long before IP Pavlov.

Descartes was convinced that man is a machine, a kind of, but still a machine devoid of any kind of soul, vegetable, or feeling. Human actions in their involuntary, unconditionally reflex form are similar to the actions of an animal.

One of the manifestations of the mechanistic approach to man was Descartes' teaching about passions. The philosopher viewed passions more from a physiological point of view, believing that passions reflect certain actions of the human body. All the variety of human passions, he reduced to six basic: surprise, love, hate, desire, joy and sorrow.

The liberation of the living body from the soul was a turning point in the scientific search for the real causes of everything that is happening in living systems, including the mental effects (sensations, perceptions, emotions) that arise in them. At the same time Descartes believed that not only the body is liberated from the soul, but the soul (psyche) in its higher manifestations is free from the body. The body can only move, the soul can only think. The principle of the body is a reflex. The principle of the soul's work is reflection (from lat. return back ). In the first case, the brain reflects external tremors; in the second - the mind reflects its own thoughts, ideas.

Solving the psychophysiological problem of the correlation of the spiritual and the physical, Descartes recognized the independence of the first from the second. For Descartes, the mental, the intellectual, was the only true, the initial and the predominant.

Descartes recognized the existence of innate ideas that are characterized by independence from external objects, clarity, clarity, simplicity. The highest congenital concept, in his opinion, is the concept of God. In addition to innate concepts, there are innate axioms, as, for example: "two values ​​equal to the third are equal". To innate Descartes also included logical laws.

Knowledge, according to Descartes, is illuminated by the light of reason, and error arises from the fact that a person possesses a free will, which is an irrational beginning in a person.

In the "Reasoning about the method Descartes described the rules that give a way to achieve the most true, reliable knowledge:

1) proceed in their reasoning only from such statements that appear clear and distinct in the mind and do not cause any doubt of their truth;

2) to divide each complex problem into its particular questions, so that each part can be resolved separately;

3) in their reasoning to try to pass from the simplest and most easily cognizable subjects to the knowledge of more complex things, from known and proven to less known and unproven;

4) Try not to make any omissions in your reasoning in the process of logical thinking.

Descartes' teaching and various directions in philosophy that developed his ideas were called Cartesianism (from the Latinized name of the name - Cartesias), and the corresponding scientific worldview is Cartesian science, the main methodological principles of which are the following provisions:

• The general laws are significant for everyone and always;

• scientific knowledge is neutral in relation to ethics, politics;

• the subject, the consciousness is qualitatively different from the object, nature, their opposition - the condition of the objectivity of cognition;

• knowledge gives power over nature.

This ideal of scientific rationality is represented in the works and methods of research of F. Bacon, R. Descartes, G. Galilei, I. Newton, G. Leibniz, I. Kant and other scientists and philosophers. The notion of nature as a giant watchmaking mechanism lay at the basis of a scientific worldview, which is commonly called mechanistic.

The next thinker whose work is of interest in our study is Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679).

This English philosopher, being an advocate of natural science methodology, considered the behavior and psyche of man to be completely subordinate to the laws of mechanics (in contradistinction to the dualism of Descartes). Hobbes rejected the idea of ​​ soul as an independent beginning of psychic phenomena, reducing them (including abstract thinking and will) to the rules for the formation of associations by contiguity. Hobbes believed that from simple sensations caused by external action, as the movement of atoms in the brain, other mental processes arise. Will was interpreted by him as a product of the main sensory motives - aspirations and aversions, and the mind - as a sort of calculating device whose actions correspond to addition and subtraction, and not things, but names.

A person was considered a thinker as a creature endowed by nature with a desire for self-preservation and self-gain. Since initially people lived in isolation, in a state of "wars of all against all", they voluntarily agreed to limit their freedom by restricting individual freedom to the sovereign (the state to which absolute sovereignty belongs) in order to ensure their security and achieve civil peace.


Considering the attitude of the individual to society and the state, Hobbes was one of the first to highlight this problem from the standpoint of psychology. Its strictly deterministic and monistic (starting from one postulate: man is a mechanism) the explanation of the psyche had a big impact on the natural sciences in associative psychology.

The main stimulus of human activity Hobbes declared selfishness. At the same time, the thinker did not condemn people for their egoistic inclinations, believing that they are not evil by nature (the evils are not the very desires of people, but only the results of actions resulting from these desires, and even then only when these actions harm other people ), and besides "by nature are deprived of upbringing and not trained to obey reason."

As for the fear and distrust of people to each other, they, according to Hobbes, stemmed from the equality of the physical and mental abilities of people. Although we often observe that one person is stronger or smarter than another, but if we consider their abilities in aggregate, it turns out that the difference between people in this respect is not so great that one or another person can count on some special advantages for yourself. Because of the equality of the same abilities of people there is an equality of hopes for the achievement of the goals that they set for themselves. That is why, if two people desire the same thing, which, however, they can not possess together, they become enemies. "

So, in the very nature of people, the reasons for rivalry, distrust and fear that lead to hostile clashes and violent actions aimed at ruining or subduing others are laid. To this join the thirst for fame and disagreement in opinions, which also force people to resort to violence. In short, there is the "war of all against all", during which people use violence to dominate others or in self-defense.

Hobbes described this state of general war and confrontation as a natural state of the human race and interpreted it as the absence of a civil society, i.e. state organization, state-legal regulation of people's lives. In the natural state, the philosopher noted, only natural law acts, allowing a person to do everything he likes and against anyone.

Hobbes argued that it is necessary to distinguish the law and law, for the right is in freedom to do or not to do anything, while the law defines and obliges (and, Thus, law and law differ in the same way as commitment and freedom). It is important to emphasize that the natural law, according to Hobbes, is not the result of an agreement of people, but represents the dictates of the human mind. The philosopher noted in this connection that the natural law "is no less inherent in human nature than any other ability or state of mind."

First, Hobbes did not believe that people are evil by nature. And although people have a "born desire" first of all, to satisfy their personal interests, they also have another desire - to avoid death and save their lives. Secondly, Hobbes repeatedly stressed that observance and respect of natural laws can be guaranteed only by state law and the compulsory power of the state. Therefore, natural laws can be realized, turned from possibility into reality only in civil society, with the emergence of the state. In a natural state, they remain only the good wishes of people who are forced to rely on their own circumstances to rely on their own strength and do all that seems to them necessary to preserve their lives.

"The first and basic natural law says: you need to search the world wherever you can reach it; In the same place where peace can not be achieved, one must seek help for warfare. " From the basic law, Hobbes also deduced other natural laws, attaching special importance to the second natural law, which reads: "... the right of all to anything is impossible to preserve, it is necessary or to transfer some of the morals to others, or refuse them."

Commenting on this law, Goboi pointed out that in the event that each person sought to retain his right to everything, people would be at war. But since according to the first natural law people are striving for peace, they must agree to give up the right to all things and be content with such a degree of freedom in relation to others as they would allow themselves.

Refusing the right to anything, Hobbes explained in "Leviathan", means to lose the freedom to prevent another person from exercising the right to the same thing. Anyone who renounces his right does not give these people any rights that the latter would not have had before, because by nature all people have rights to everything.

In Leviathan the thinker mentioned 19 natural laws, most of which had the nature of requirements or prohibitions: to be just, merciful, compliant, not touching, and at the same time not to be cruel, vindictive, haughty, treacherous, etc.

Summing up the summary, Hobbes brought all the natural laws to one general rule: "Do not do to another what you would not want to be done towards you" - golden rule morality. Hobbes directly pointed to the kinship of his rule with the Gospel formula: "Do unto others as you would have others do unto you." By giving so much importance to this moral demand and even characterizing it as "the law of all people", Hobbes proceeded from the fact that this requirement can easily be understood and understood by all people. Recall: about the same and almost the same words said Confucius.

Hobbes was convinced that natural laws, which are the laws of morality, act as prescriptions or dictates of reason, come from the very human nature. And only the state, he stressed, created to ensure peace and security, is able to guarantee the observance of natural laws, giving them the character of civil laws. Thus, the state becomes the highest judge in matters of morality: "Only in the state there is a universal scale for the measurement of virtues and vices." Hobbes also stressed that civil laws coincide with their content with natural laws and differ from them only in that they rely on the power of state power. However, he did not identify them completely. Natural laws, the thinker believed, do not need any publication, for they are the dictates of reason and are given to people from nature. Therefore, natural laws belong to unwritten laws, while civil laws can be both written and unwritten. "Civil and natural laws are not different kinds, but different parts of the law," Hobbes explained, "of which one (the written part) is called civil, the other (unwritten) is natural."

The appeal to human nature for the purpose of justifying the principles on which social life should be based was typical of modern thinkers. But Hobbes was one of those eminent philosophers who began to view the state from the point of view of psychology, to deduce its natural laws from reason and experience, and not from theology.

In the XVII century. the centers of advanced philosophy and science are England and Holland. One of the leading representatives of the rationalism of this period was the Dutch philosopher Benedict Spinoza (Baruch d'Espinosa) (1632-1677).

Spinoza resolutely rejected the postulate of the substantiality of consciousness (considering consciousness as a separate entity, as Descartes represented it). As the only substance in nature, God (nature) acted in Pego, in the understanding of which he stood on the common for the entire XVII century. soil of mechanism. God is nature, and nature is God. - this position makes him a vivid representative of the Hylozoism of that time.

Spinoza taught that will and mind are identical. Illusion of free will is the result of ignorance of previous causes. Instead of a spontaneous volitional impulse coming from the sphere of consciousness, they were brought to the forefront with an attraction that had a cause (it can be noted, in this way, that Locke acted in this respect as a representative of determinism close to Democratism).

Desire was considered by the thinker to be the category of the main affects, which included along with it two more motive forces - pleasure and displeasure (the first increases, and the second reduces the body's ability to act). Apart from these, Spinoza did not recognize any other major affects, arguing that "the other affects originate from the three".

In his work "Ethics the philosopher made an attempt to introduce the rigor of geometrical analysis into a hefty mass of traditional information about human emotions and feelings, to deduce them all from one principle (the desire of a thing to abide in its existence) and several further indissoluble affects. Proving that "the affects of hatred, anger, envy, etc., considered in themselves, flow from the same necessity and power of nature as all other single things", Spinoza introduced the principle of materialistic determinism into the psychology of feelings. At the same time, the feelings were not simply ordered by them. They were considered in their objective role of regulators of human behavior. For the starting point in characterizing the senses, not the evidence of introspection, not subjective experiences, but the real system of relations between man and the world, independent of consciousness, was taken. Independence from consciousness did not mean blindness of emotions. Attraction, pleasure, displeasure in the treatment of Spinoza are impossible without the idea in which the objects of these feelings are represented. In fact, the thinker assumed the existence of so many affects, "how many types of those objects from which we are exposed to affects."

The object of Spinoza represented in the form of ideas that differ in the degree of adequacy. Thus, the result of the interaction of the human body with other bodies turned out to be twofold. He is always expressed in the idea of ​​a thing, and in those cases when the arising state increases or decreases the ability of the body to act, it is also expressed in affect.

The materialistic doctrine of special sensory-stimulating states - affects as determinants of behavior testifies to the desire to explain the real function of the psychic without leaving the soil of determinism.

Affect is a condition experienced by the body. Being included in the chain of causes, it is not a primary, but a derivative. At the same time, it has a causal meaning. From the nature of affect depends more or less the ability of the body to act. Thus, the psychic acted not only as a product, the result of the interaction of the organism with nature, but also as a factor actively influencing this interaction.

The belief that the body moves or rests under the influence of the soul has developed, in Spinoza's opinion, due to ignorance of what it is capable of as such, "by virtue of the laws of nature alone, regarded solely as bodily." Thus, one of the epistemological sources of faith in the ability of the soul to arbitrarily control the behavior of the body, namely, ignorance of the true possibilities of the bodily device in itself, was revealed. When people say, "Spinoza wrote," that this or that action of the body originates from the soul having power over the body, they do not know what they are saying, and only in beautiful words confess that the true cause of this action is unknown to them, and they are not at all surprised by this. "

A peculiar "gospel" empiricism was the work of "The experience of human reasoning" John Locke (1632-1704), who proclaimed that the source of the idea is experience, thus putting forward a concept that opposes rationalism.

Principal discrepancies between rationalists and empiricists concerned the question of the possibility of deriving from the individual experience (in the basis of the sensory one) abstract and axiomatic knowledge, such as, for example, the knowledge of the truths of geometry and mechanics, the general laws of human psychology, etc. Rationalists denied this possibility, empiricists, on the contrary, argued that there is no other way of comprehending the world and man except experience.

There were significant discrepancies between the rationalists themselves in the interpretation of mental activity, although they all unanimously defended the priority of the mind. Thus, R. Descartes put forward a provision on innate ideas, whereas G.D. Leibniz (1646-1716) believed that in the soul there is a certain predisposition, thanks to which in the future from it can be extracted from the unexperienced truths. "This," he wrote, "is like the difference between figures arbitrarily carved out of stone or marble, and figures that are already marked or predisposed to the streaks of marble if the sculptor uses them." This image he contrasted with the image of the "clean plank" on which the experience inflicts his writings (the term "pure board" belonged to Aristotle). The model of the "clean board," as we said above, was advocated by Locke, who was the main critic of the Cartesian concept of innate ideas.

Behind the strong criticism of innate ideas, the inner kinship of the Lockean doctrine of consciousness with the Cartesian one went unnoticed. Both were built on the assumption that the only subject of reason (understanding) is the "inside of us" ideas, not external objects. At the same time, there can be no thoughts (images, representations, etc.) about which the person himself would not have knowledge. Locke's idea It was an internal psychic object equivalent to the Cartesian "thoughts". They understood the nature of the psychic identically. From Descartes, Locke adopted the postulate: "Consciousness is the perception of what happens in a person in his own mind," which has become "the symbol of faith" introspectionism.

Experience, according to Locke, is formed from two sources: sensations and reflection. The term reflexion meant the inner perception of the activity of our mind when it deals with the ideas it has acquired, the special capacity of the soul for self-analysis and self-knowledge.

So neither Descartes, nor Hobbes, nor Spinoza - the true creators of the mechanistic model of the association - have found the appropriate term for it. The term of the association was suggested by Locke, who introduced in the fourth edition of the "Experience of human intelligence" (1790) a special paragraph on the "Association of Ideas". This concept eventually became central in understanding the basic mental processes, from sensations to thinking. The new, association-based teaching has been called of associationism.

The mechanism of association Locke interpreted in Cartesian terms. "All of them," wrote the thinker about the association, "are, apparently, only chains of movement in the life spirits that, once launched, continue to follow those paths to which the are used. However, the connection of ideas for association Locke contrasted the connections on the basis of reason and the role of the first in the general mechanics of psychic life was assessed as detrimental. In them, Locke saw "incorrect and unnatural combinations of ideas", "some kind of insanity".

Associations come from an event or custom and do not have a reasonable basis. They are observed when the "ideas, which in themselves are not at all related, in the minds of some people are connected in such a way that it is very difficult to separate them. They always accompany each other, and as soon as one such idea penetrates into the mind, the idea connected with it immediately appears; and if in this way more than two ideas are connected, then the whole inseparable always crowd is shown together. "

Associations as unnatural combinations of ideas Locke explained religious prejudices, irreconcilable contradictions between philosophical schools and political parties. Considering their cause for most, if not all, of the world's misconceptions, Locke urged educators and politicians to prevent the emergence of associations, to dissolve them in the name of reason. However, Locke's prejudice against associations as opposites of reason was overcome, and they took the dominant place in psychological theory for two centuries.

So, according to associative theories of the XVII century. not the soul forms associations, and they, according to the general laws of mechanics, form the series of bodily phenomena, realized as psychic. The Association, however (apart from the Hobbesian doctrine), has not yet become a universal category in the period under review, as it emerged in the middle of the 18th century. In the XVII century. it was assumed that the behavior regulated by it does not coincide with a truly intellectual one. It was believed that in the association created by the interaction of material bodies, the higher principles of this interaction are not opened to consciousness, but they are comprehended only in a superassociative way, thanks to the "clear light of reason", intellectual intuition. Higher cognitive processes (in contrast to sensory-associative) deterministic explanations, as noted, have not yet received.

Thanks to the Lockean "Experience of human intelligence" In Europe, the distinction between primary and secondary qualities, adopted by Galileo, Descartes, and others, became very popular. In Locke it was described as follows: primary qualities (density, length, shape, movement, etc.) are absolutely not separable "from any particle of matter" , secondary (colors, sounds, tastes, etc.) -in fact they are not in the things themselves, but they represent the forces that cause in us different sensations (the reality of the beautiful).

Locke is considered the father of liberalism. He made a real revolution in the field of political thinking. In his opinion, human rights are natural and inalienable. Man by nature is a free being. Freedom of one person, if limited, is only freedom of another person. Locke put forward the idea of ​​the separation of powers (legislative, executive, judicial). He believed that state power should not be unlimited. In modern history, this idea has gained special popularity.

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