Psychology of racism
As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:
• The main provisions of the psychology of racism;
• The concept of G. Gobineau;
be able to
• trace the historical fate of racism;
• skills of critical analysis of contemporary forms of racism.
You must command me,
And I have to be obedient.
On the inequality of human races
Racism does not exist until the other remains foreign. Racism begins when the other acquires the properties of the discernible, that is, in other words, becomes dangerously close. That's when the attempts begin to keep him at a distance.
Racism is one of these "new partitions," Baudrillard writes. - Removing emotional tension in the psychodrama of differences, fantasy and obsession to become another. Psychodrama of the eternal absorption and rejection of the Other. Expel the Other, materializing the differences at any cost - so true is that this absorption of differences is unbearable ... "
Racism has no basis for its biological claims, but if we approach this phenomenon objectively, then we can say that racism reveals an ideological temptation - a temptation to fetish the difference. In the absence of biologically correlated racism, food finds itself in the smallest differences that are found in the arrangement of signs, and therefore such racism can not be defeated by any kind of humanism of difference.
That is why, according to Baudrillard, the criticism of racism is essentially complete, just as Marx spoke of the completion of criticism of religion. Since the metaphysical hypothesis of religion has been proved, the latter is doomed to disappear under the conditions of a more progressive mode of production. Since the biological theory of races has been proven to be inconsistent, racism is doomed to disappear under conditions that are more approximate to the general confusion of differences.
One of the prominent exponents of racism was the French sociologist and writer Joseph Arthur Gobineau. It was he who was the founder of the racial-anthropological school in sociology. J. Gobineau became the author of ethnographic works on sociology. According to this scientist, individual races differ from each other not only physically, but also spiritually. That is why mixing races, which are not of equal nature, leads to ethnic degeneration, which causes the decline and loss of crops. Gobineau's attempt to combine psychology with anthropology is largely naive. General characteristics of the races are arbitrary, approximate. The main works in the work of Gobineau are the work "On the Inequality of Human Races", "Religions and Philosophy of Central Asia", "New Asians", "Renaissance".
F. Gobineau was the actual founder of the racial theory, although at the same time he discovered himself as a subtle thinker and writer of an aristocratic nature, to whom rough anti-Semitism was alien. He owns the myth of the chosen Aryan race and the great mission of the Germans, who, however, in his opinion, ceased to be a great race. For Gobineau, the theory of inequality of races was primarily a rationale for an aristocratic idea, an excuse for aristocratic culture. G. Gobineau was a pessimist and talked about the inevitable decadence of races and cultures. In France, he had little success, the racial theory did not take root, but yielded results in Germany, subject to coarsening there.
F. Gobineau believed that before the human race there were only shy guesses, but now thanks to his efforts, developed a racial theory. One of the main ideas of Gobineau's works is the enormous influence of ethnic blending, in other words, of marriages, between different races. G. Gobineau believed that Charles Darwin and W. Buckley developed the thoughts that are set out in his priority. In the book "On the inequality of human races" he protested against the image of a wild tribe in terrible colors.
F. Gobino poses research questions: "Is moral life, which is placed in the basis of consciousness of each individual of our species, expand to infinity?" Can different races be equal to each other? Evaluating the idea of progress, Gobineau noticed that his modern morals are generally mild and morality is preferable to the morality of the ancient Greeks and Romans. Such superiority is also proved by political practice. However, in the field of culture, the idea of progress does not justify itself. How many concepts were forgotten and lost.
In the past, according to Gobineau, every person who had some intention to participate in enlightenment, with all his might, defended the equality of the human race, the universal right to dispose of the blessings of this land, the obvious need for Greco-Roman civilization. These ideas were a consolation and pride not only for the pagans, but also for the firm hope of the first, the most glorified fathers of the church, whose interpreter was Tertullian. Further, Gobineau calls into question these axioms. Human perfection is not proved by the state of our civilization.
F. Gobineau criticized the widespread view that our civilization will never perish, since we have book printing, a steam engine and gunpowder. However, did these inventions give a satisfactory civilization, because the printing was in Tonquin, in the Annan Empire and in Japan? Hence the conclusion: a civilized man, depraved, sluggish and lazy, intellectually not worth the barbarian, whom he harasses on occasion.
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