Teacher's Psychology of Work
Personality of the teacher, pedagogical activity, pedagogical communication as important components of pedagogical work
The teacher's work is successful if such aspects of him as the possession of pedagogical activity and communication, the maturity of the personality are harmoniously combined.
Pedagogical activity is the professional activity of the teacher, using the system of pedagogical tasks, pedagogical methods and technologies for teaching, developing, educating students.
Pedagogical communication is the professional activity of the teacher, which consists in establishing favorable relations with other participants in the pedagogical process (with students, colleagues, teachers, administration, etc.) to improve the effectiveness of pedagogical activity. >
The decisive factor in pedagogical work is the personality of the teacher.
The personality of the teacher is the totality of his mental qualities (value orientations, motivations, abilities, etc.) that significantly influence the teacher's choice of goals, objectives, means and methods of pedagogical activity and pedagogical communication.
If pedagogical activity characterizes the process, techniques and technologies in the teacher's work, pedagogical communication reflects the climate and atmosphere of this work, then the personality of the teacher determines the meaning, direction, ideals, spiritual content of this work.
The personality of a teacher consists of a complex hierarchy of professionally important pedagogical qualities. Any psychological quality of the teacher that facilitates the implementation of his pedagogical work, for example professional thinking, professional memory, professional attention and observation, appearance and
A group of professionally important qualities of a personality that influence the personal orientation , i.e. motivation of human behavior (value orientations, ideals, attitudes, motives, purpose of meaning, etc.) and determining the professional mentality: for what the teacher works, which is the meaning of his work, in than he sees the mission and the teacher's work mission. Types of orientation of the teacher's personality (socio-civic, cognitive, professional-pedagogical) determine his behavior as a whole.
The pedagogical orientation is the motivation for the profession of the teacher, the desire to become, to be and to remain a teacher. At a certain stage of professional development, the motivation of pedagogical skill and creativity is of special importance, meaning the teacher's focus on the transition to a higher level of pedagogical work. The main pedagogical focus is not just a love of children, but an orientation toward the development of the personality of the student as an adult. The presence of a stable pedagogical orientation and motivation determines the development of all other qualities of a teacher's personality.
Essential influence on the pedagogical work is provided by the qualities forming the strong-willed and emotional sphere of the personality. These include:
• pedagogical goal-setting - the teacher's planning of his work and professional life in general, the setting of realistic immediate and remote goals, the development of tactical and operational goals of labor, taking into account the strategic and global goals of education adopted in a given society, which requires special qualities of responsibility, organization,
• pedagogical empathy, ie. empathy with other participants of the pedagogical process;
• pedagogical tact as a sense of reasonable measure when relating pedagogical tasks, conditions and characteristics of students
• emotional excerpt, self-control, predominance of positive emotions in the behavior and professional activity;
• trust to the capabilities of another person and pedagogical optimism, approach to all students with optimistic hope and trust.
A group of qualities of personality, of which the intellectual resource of a teacher (abilities involving thinking, memory, attention, etc.) is also important for pedagogical work.
Pedagogical abilities are individual stable personality traits that ensure the effectiveness of pedagogical work.
There are varieties of pedagogical abilities: perceptive-reflexive (ability to perceive another person and understanding oneself) and projectively constructive (the ability to influence another person, control another and yourself). Perceptual abilities are expressed in the presence of pedagogical observation (vigilance), the teacher's understanding of the essence of the pedagogical situation on seemingly insignificant signs.
Different teachers of a variety of abilities can be in a different state and relationship. There are compensated and uncompensated pedagogical abilities, the latter includes a humanistic orientation toward the development of the student's personality.
Various authors (FN Gonobolin, NV Kuzmina, VA Krutetsky, and others) described various components of pedagogical abilities (didactic, gnostic, academic, expressive, constructive, etc.), as well as special pedagogical abilities (mathematical, linguistic, etc.).
A significant, professionally important quality of a teacher's personality is pedagogical thinking , consisting in the ability to analyze always outwardly hidden properties of the pedagogical situation, to adopt an adequate pedagogical decision for the situation. They sing out theoretical pedagogical thinking - the ability to think in generalized pedagogical categories and principles - and practical pedagogical thinking as the ability to cover in general a particular pedagogical situation in the interrelation of its characteristics, including diagnostic pedagogical thinking as the teacher's ability to see the various psychological characteristics of the student when studying it in their complex and dynamic relationship.The signs of new pedagogical thinking are the teacher's openness to innovations, the orientation toward the development of the student's personality through the means of all and different academic subjects, interest in the developing and personally directed training.
Teaching thinking is impossible without pedagogical foresight , prediction - the ability to anticipate the behavior of students in the pedagogical situation, to provide possible reactions of students and their possible difficulties.
Pedagogical thinking can take the form of pedagogical intuition as a quick, one-stage, without a detailed conscious analysis of the fact that the teacher makes a decision, taking into account the adequate foresight of the further development of the situation. Pedagogical intuition is an important professional personal quality, because in pedagogical work there are abounding and rapidly changing situations in which the teacher needs to make a decision in the conditions of time deficit and who do not provide opportunities for their detailed, conscious analysis.
Another form of pedagogical thinking is considered to be pedagogical improvisation - finding an unexpected pedagogical decision (under the influence of external factors, questions of students or internal causes) and its instantaneous incarnation. Pedagogical improvisation is necessary for the teacher due to the great variability, mobility, and at times unpredictability of the living pedagogical process.
With pedagogical thinking, the professional quality of a teacher, such as professional pedagogical self-awareness , is also closely related - the ability to realize as many as possible qualities (positive and negative) in oneself as a professional, the ability to construct the "I-concept" ; yourself as a professional. This quality, in turn, relies on pedagogical reflection - the teacher's consciousness towards himself and understanding how the teacher is perceived by other participants in the pedagogical process, the psychological-pedagogical self-analysis of the ways and results of his actions on students, on itself.
Based on the orientation of the teacher's personality, pedagogical abilities, the readiness and ability to pedagogical skill , consisting in the teacher's performance of his work at the level of high samples and standards, verified in practice and already described in methodological developments and recommendations . Pedagogical mastery is a good mastery of the fundamentals and norms of the profession, the successful application of techniques and technologies known in science and practice. Mastery manifests itself in excellent knowledge of the subject, achieving stable high learning outcomes for students.
More complex personality quality - readiness and ability to pedagogical creativity - is realized in the search and finding of new when setting pedagogical tasks, in building techniques and technologies, achieving non-standard results. Pedagogical creativity, which implies the subjective novelty of discoveries, is present every day for every teacher, when it is necessary for him to find non-standard approaches to students in non-repetitive pedagogical situations, and these approaches are new for the teacher, but they are known in pedagogical practice. Pedagogical creativity, including objective novelty and finding fundamentally new and previously unknown in pedagogy approaches, is not carried out by every teacher (just as not every engineer is an innovator). Pedagogical creativity, which is approaching innovation, can concern certain methodological methods, and sometimes lead to the construction of globally new systems of education and upbringing.The above-mentioned pedagogical reflection, pedagogical self-analysis, are the condition for the formation of such a personal quality of the teacher, as the desire to realize one's individuality, to develop the ability to study and develop the individual style of his pedagogical work. Individual style is a stable combination of tasks, means and methods of pedagogical activity and communication characteristic for the given teacher.
ExampleTeachers of one style prefer a clear structuring and organization of the educational process, sufficiently rigid management of it, pay much attention to the repetition and fixing of the material, they try to encompass all, including the weak, students, but do not always stimulate the activity and initiative of the students themselves. Teachers of a different style do not strive for a clear planning of classes, but build them in an emotionally improvisational setting, emphasizing the development of students 'independence, finding new ways of solving problems, but at the same time not focusing on the consolidation and quality of students' knowledge and skills. > Indications for the teacher's ability to use his individual style are quite high results of his work (according to the criteria of schoolchildren's upbringing and upbringing), as well as a good psychological climate of pedagogical communication, supported by the application of this individual style.
Teacher's development of one's personality requires knowledge of the standard qualities of the modern teacher, the ability to recognize the individual characteristics of professional development, strengthen their strengths, eliminate or mitigate the weak, use the compensatory links of their abilities, be open to search in pedagogical creativity. Any teacher, having made efforts, can achieve pedagogical skill. Each teacher can set himself the task of transition to pedagogical creativity, for which it is necessary to develop the ability to find alternatives and flexible options for solving pedagogical problems, to see the general for the particular, to think in conditions of uncertainty, etc.
An important component of the personality of a teacher is his professional experience , including acquired professional knowledge and skills, established professional value and personal orientations, accumulated methods of engineering and labor technology.
Some influence on the effectiveness of pedagogical work is provided by psychophysiological features of the teacher. Like other people, teachers have different temperaments, which affects their character - a system of sustainable, including emotional, attitudes toward the typical situations of professional life and related behavior stereotypes. Teachers, as a rule, are characterized by various predominant perception channels (audial, visual, kinesthetic), which determines their cognitive style, the way of submitting the educational material. Teachers can have different character accentuations that affect the overall situation of pedagogical communication. But the influence of the psychophysiological characteristics of the teacher on the success of his work can be (to a certain extent) the subject of conscious control and regulation on the part of the teacher himself.
The personality of the teacher largely determines the nature of his pedagogical activities . It serves as a tool, an instrument of pedagogical work. The teacher realizes several types of polysyllabic pedagogical activity: teaching, diagnostic, developing, correctional, educational, managerial, organizational, innovative, enlightening, self-educational, cooperation activities. These types of pedagogical activity can be formed in different degrees among different teachers - some better conduct education and development, others - education, others achieve success in their own self-educational activity. The condition of different types of pedagogical activity usually changes with the teacher during his professional life. In each of the types of pedagogical activity, the teacher poses and solves pedagogical tasks: global, strategic (tasked by society), stage-by-stage, tactical (determined by the specifics of the academic subject, educational institution), operational (depending on the specific characteristics of the students present in the class, the audience).
When solving pedagogical problems, the teacher encounters pedagogical situations as a certain set of conditions. There are situations planned (for example, a lesson) and unexpected ones; Stable-stable and episodic-casual; calm and conflict. Educational activity is to analyze and transform (or preservation, consolidation) pedagogical situations (YN Kulyutkin, GS Suhobskaya).
Pedagogical activity for its implementation requires the teacher to have appropriate knowledge and skills . Necessary are knowledge in the field of pedagogy (knowledge of the whole pedagogical process, the content of the taught subject and methods of presentation, the best pedagogical experience), in the field of psychology (knowledge of the age and individual characteristics of students, the indicators and methods of developing and personality- on the methods of psychological and pedagogical study of students, etc.). For successful pedagogical activity, it is important to analyze the pedagogical situation, to set up adequate pedagogical tasks, to master modern pedagogical technologies, to update the content of the subject, to study the changes in the psyche of students in the process of assimilating the educational material, to practice developing and personal-oriented instruction, to build pedagogical influences with taking into account the zone of the nearest development of the personality of the students, as well as the skills of pedagogical self-analysis for comparing the post claimed pedagogical objectives and outcomes of training and education of students. Particular importance is attached to the teacher's abilities to build, select and apply pedagogical technologies as a set of pedagogical techniques aimed at achieving a clearly diagnosed goal in the mental, personal development of students.
The personality of the teacher and the types of pedagogical activity that he carries out influence the character of pedagogical communication . The teacher uses different types of pedagogical communication, differing in their tasks and ways of implementing them. Thus, the teacher's communication tasks may be the transfer to the students (or fellow teachers) of information or the exchange of information, the mutual knowledge of the participants in pedagogical communication, the interaction and organization of real cooperation, the exchange of spiritual values, the mobilization of psychological reserves of communication participants, the provision of good psychological climate, etc.
In accordance with the above tasks, the types of pedagogical communication are distinguished: the narrowly informational, consisting in the transfer of knowledge; communication, which organizes real cooperation with students in the assimilation of new knowledge; spiritual communication, which is a discussion of moral values in connection with the content of educational topics. In addition, distinguish styles pedagogical communication - authoritarian, democratic and liberal.
Different types of communication can be mastered to varying degrees by the teacher. For successful communication, the teacher needs knowledge about the tasks and means of humanistically oriented communication, about different models, types, levels, stages of pedagogical communication (VA Kan-Kalik), pedagogical ethics, personality characteristics of modern students. It is important for a teacher to be proficient in setting a wide range of communication tasks and flexibly reconfiguring them in the course of communication, taking into account the position of other participants in communication, the skills of tolerance for the dissimilarity of another person, and the ability to collaborate with students and colleagues.
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