This assignment will compare and contrast Freud's psychosexual levels of development with Erikson's psychosocial level model. The similarities and the dissimilarities between the two models will be explained and specified.
Developmental psychology is a report of the natural, cognitive, emotional and communal changes that take place over a span of amount of time in humans. Sigmund Freud brought about the theory of psychoanalytic development, where he believed that early youth experiences had an end result on later development and in adulthood. Freud's stages of psychosexual development contain five phases: the dental level (0 - 1 year), the anal level (1 - three years), the phallic stage (3 - 6 years), the latency period (6 - puberty) and the genital level (puberty - maturity).
The psychosexual periods have three main parts. Each of Freud's five phases has a physical center point where in fact the child's energy is strongest and where their pleasure is obtained. The levels also have a mental theme and a grown-up identity type.
The oral level is associated with the jaws as the infant increases pleasure from sucking, swallowing, biting and gnawing. The psychological theme to the oral stage is dependency as a newborn can do little for itself. Too much or too little fulfilment can lead to Dental Fixation. This fixation will be transported onto later life, where this type of personality may have a more robust tendency to smoke cigars, drink, overeat and bite their nails. The anal stage is from the anal cavity and sphincter muscles of the bowel, which are now the main sources of pleasure. The child learns to regulate anal excitement. Anal fixation can result in obsession with sanitation and perfection. On the opposite side they could become disorganised and/or untidy. The phallic stage is from the genital area where this becomes the primary area pleasure. The child at this stage becomes alert to the sex variances; both children experience emotional emotions in relation to the opposite love-making parent. The latency stage is the time of relative sooth. The sexual and intense drives are less productive and there is little in the form of psychosexual conflict. During this period the balance between the id, ego and superego is increased. The final level is the genital level and marks the beginning of adolescence. Through the courses learned during the previous stages, adolescents direct their sexual urges onto complete opposite sex peers.
Like Freud, Erikson also presumed that personality grows in phases. While Freud's theory was based on psychosexual periods, Erikson's theory represents the impact of social experiences across an individual's life time. Erikson's psychosocial levels span across eight periods: Stage 1 - Trust vs. mistrust, Level 2 - Autonomy vs. pity and doubt, Level 3 - Initiative vs. guilt, Level 4 - Industry vs. inferiority, Level 5 - Identification vs. role misunderstanding, Stage 6 - Intimacy vs. isolation, Level 7 - Generativity vs. stagnation and Level 8 - Integrity vs. despair.
The first stage of Erikson's theory occurs between beginning to one 12 months of age. The balance of trust with mistrust is based mainly on the quality of maternal care. Insufficient interaction with a grown-up who tends to the newborns' needs, leads to mistrust. Through the second level children develop a better sense of personal control. Like Freud, much of the conflict in this level centres around bathroom training. Level three focuses on preschool years where children begin to communicate through play and try new functions. Stage four comforters early university years where children create a sense of delight in their accomplishments. Stage five ranges adolescence, where people explore their independence and form an individuality. Stage six comforters early on adulthood where people explore personal connections in order to attain intimacy with others. The seventh stage is where the adult plays a part in society and the introduction of the next generation. The last level occurs during later years and is focused on reflecting back on life and feeling a feeling of integrity and feeling pleased with their achievements.
Freud's psychosexual theory and Erikson's psychosocial theory are two perfectly known developmental principles. Erikson was influenced by Freud's ideas but broadened on the idea in various ways. His theory compared to Freud's varied in several various ways.
Erikson's theory emphasised how both early and late activities are evenly important to someone's development and how personality continued to develop beyond puberty. Where as Freud would claim that a lot of development took place during the early on period of a person's life. Freud's psychosexual periods contain five periods and he does not expand any more than puberty. Erikson's first few psychosocial periods are slightly similar compared to that of Freud's stages someone to three. Erikson also expands his developmental phases to eight.
Similarly to Freud, Erikson believed that personality builds up in some determined stages and this much of people's development took place early in life. The psychologists also presumed that a issue needed to be resolved in order to advance onto the next stage. They both agreed that individual development is mainly an unconscious progress, so when development occurs this is a progressive process. With both theories similar in this sense the id, ego and ultra ego play important roles in development.
Freud believed that people are born with the id so that as we slowly but surely develop, the second part of our own personality begins to develop, the ego. By the end of the phallic level the superego develops. Erikson accepted this theory, but observed the ego very important. He assumed that area of the ego can function autonomously of the identification and superego. He claimed a person's ego benefits or loses durability through the image resolution of the eight developmental periods.
Erikson's developmental theory was a lot more comprehensive compared to Freud. His theory identifies the impact of social experiences on an individual's life-time, unlike Freud who explained development solely based on sexuality. The periods in Erikson's psychosocial development theory highlighted the importance of social encounters as he theorised how all the phases are unconditionally present at birth but commence to expand regarding to one's upbringing in their family, sociable development and own culture. Each of Erikson's levels are characterised by an emergency, which is emphasised on parental and societal impact. Each problems is identified by a pair of opposing options e. g. trust vs. mistrust, and relating to Erikson a healthy development takes a favourable percentage of positive to negative.
Another major difference between Freud and Erikson's developmental theory is the results of the stages. Freud believed that when an individual is fixated on a certain stage, the issues associated with that particular level would be completed throughout his/her life. While in Erikson's psychosocial phases, the results of a specific stage is not permanent and can be transformed by later experiences.
In final result both Freud and Erikson have added to the understanding of human development in psychology. Overall, although there are a few similarities between their developmental stages there are major variations that stand out. Freud's phases were very physical where as Erikson's highlighted the importance of social relationship within an individual's life span.
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