Reducing prejudice in society

A major problem still occurring in the current population is prejudice. We are able to monitor this in the large ranges of data available. . It really is still reported to be in any establishment such as university or work and can be learnt from how we see others. The current newspaper intends to explore and revise the literature that may be found surrounding the topic. Prejudice and discrimination are a reflection of how others react to folks of another group and indicate their affective, behavioural and cognitive reactions to the people within these different communities. The literature surrounding this theme is vast, so this review will focus on a particular strand gathered from the literature adjoining prejudice and concentrate on prejudice reduction within society.

Where will it start?

There is a negative thought pattern occurring in early years as a child as matching to Klein (1992. ) Mass media and books contain stereotyping and therefore it is this that creates the foundation for prejudicing developing in people. Degner and Wentura (2010) completed a study that looked at the computerized activation of prejudice in children and adolescents (9 years to 15 years. ) There was a continuous style recommending a linear developmental increase of computerized prejudice with significant ramifications of outgroup negativity which only made an appearance surrounding 12 to 13 time olds. However, results of youngsters showed no indicator of automated prejudice activation. These results claim that although children are assumed to acquire prejudice at much more radiant age groups, automatization of negative behaviour may well be related to developmental techniques in early on adolescence. What world views as beautiful is controlled by the mass media through newspapers etc.

An article called "Preventing Prejudice: HELPFUL INFORMATION for Counsellors, Educators, and Parents", written by Ponterotto, Utsey, and Pedersen (2006) provided an extremely useful perception. This piece of literature covers a range of issues on reducing prejudice, one being the jobs and responsibilities of these in a position to reduce prejudice; such as teachers and counsellors etc. This is a view which is also shared by numerous others, who agree that the classroom is where the early indicators of prejudice have emerged which is there that they should be alleviated. This would be a direct procedure by the instructor. Pate (1995) thought that the tutor should instruct the students to be a part of anti-prejudice programs by reading beneficial books on the topic, integrating a each week category to enlighten the students and such other activities. However Pate do admit this was not a successful strategy as students may begrudge the instructions and thus strengthening a prejudice therefore, postponed measures will be the only resolution to generate an attitude change with the immediate approach being found in the long-run.

Teachers have the power and means to implement prejudice reduction techniques. That is a assertion many say, such as Dessel (2010), and may be perceived as being self-explanatory and true. However, there continues to be too little demonstration of the in action as something that can be repeated in virtually any college. Again other books from Pate reveals that the cognitive approach's principle is that individuals can reduce prejudice if indeed they learn about other organizations and think more evidently. Pate (1995) explained that various treatment efforts which include; empathy as well as an increase in knowledge and thought of other groups, different in several ways from the students, work. Other studies also talk about this view about the potency of the cognitive methodology in prejudice reduction. For example, Katz and Zalk (1978) found the ability to recognize and accept differences among member communities could promote prejudice lowering. Other classroom solutions might also work in minimizing prejudice. A few examples of this choice are;" semantics, counter-stereotype approach, cultural immersion, the analysis of ethnic anthropology, producing instructional materials and value clarification" (Pate, 1995).

The universal problem is still a lack of evidence and design defects. Bigler (1999) mentioned that prejudice reduction research has encountered limitations credited to problems with the design of many studies. Some of these include an overly simplistic model, bias in the measuring of attitudes and a want for longitudinal studies in order to ascertain if there are any lasting results from the decrease strategies. Some studies in the literature have actually reported that, even though strategies are applied for reducing prejudice, there are "troubling results. . . of increased racial bias among children" (Bigler 1999. ) Copious amounts of literature screen programs and techniques of how they can theoretically reduce prejudice from an early years such as Weston (1990. ) The analysis stated that carefully chosen decrease tactics incorporated into the current curriculum can reduce prejudice. This however is claimed by many theorists in several ways, although the analysis didn't prove to have any valid facts to rear up the idea.

Other researchers have admitted there is a repetition in the guidelines as to how exactly we can reduce prejudice. Work completed by Parrens (2007) does give a good qualifications on prejudice and is insightful stating that the reduction of malignant prejudice is the duty of contemporary society. However this inspection lacks the presence of new research, all the already is present in the huge amount of literature available. Even so, it can highlight some factors which have been raised before to reduce prejudice but underlines a new importance of these factors where they had previously not been counted as greatly important and discusses them further. The emphasis in a lot of the literature was on intervention in early on children to eradicate prejudice; however this target has been improved to ensure the inclusion of how interpersonal motivational functions and other areas of a child's cultural interactions can affect them in their attitude towards prejudice. (Social Personal information Development Theory (SIDT), (Davis et al 2007). Much of the books includes theories to lessen prejudice; however Dovidio & Gaertner (1993) found that the original methods and techniques included in such literature may not actually be extremely effective in lowering prejudice.

As suggested by the materials available in mindset, intergroup contact seems to be an essential method of minimizing prejudice. Allport's (1954) contact theory argues that four major conditions must be satisfied to effectively reduce prejudice. Pettigrew (1998) expanded on Allport's theory in his intergroup contact theory with the addition of another condition of companionship potential. "Optimal intergroup contact requires time for cross-group friendships to develop" (Pettigrew, 1998)

A research was conducted to look at the conflict and prejudice between Israelis and Palestinians. The existing prejudice here was reported to have furthered the development and preservation of two major teams living in immediate resistance and antagonism. Stephen et al (2004) conducted such studies. Although the study seems guaranteeing in its effort to attempt to discourage and remove prejudicial stereotyping in small communities, literature has several constraints which have to be taken into account. It focused mostly on minimizing prejudice between Israelis and Palestinians. This therefore evokes matter as to if there can be a generalization towards discord in other populations. Each society is different and various underlying issues can be found, therefore the mentioned interventions may well not always be appropriate to all populations, resulting in a possible requirement of adjusting according to the population. The literature also faltered in its lack of longitudinal research. From the analysis the results indicated desired effects; however these would likely only be short-term. Bargal (2008) reasoned for implementing a long-range research design, monitoring the analysis over time, instead of it being truly a short-term intervention. Evidently, more research is required in this area in order to find out if these interventions discussed, offer resilient effects in conditions of conflict quality and minimizing stereotypes and prejudice effectively.

Conclusion

Most of the books informs us that the classroom is the better location to reduce prejudice due to the earliness of which it is acknowledged and can be manipulated. This then proposes that the students can learn empathy and other suitable emotions towards those who are different to them which could lead to unneeded thoughts of "us versus them, "a classic in-group versus out-group situation. According to literature, by the age of 10 a kid may quickly create a prejudiced attitude due to this becoming autonomous (Yee and Dark brown (1992), Rutland (1999) and Rutland et al (2005. ) However, to validate this state, more research should be conducted with a certain concentration on the age distinctions and the surroundings at home, which may breed hostile attitudes, in turn strengthening a prejudice propensity. The books should use more of a qualitative established method and data, instead of the huge amount of quantitative data, to find out if the results strengthen the existing records.

Again since the main reduction strategies are badly recognized by valid studies, they are simply just suggestions, insufficiently supported by research. The studies on these strategies are vague, lacking needed details on certain concentrates such as gender, age and individual history. Future studies should aim to include a much larger give attention to strategies affecting education and eliciting self-control and really should particularly attempt to refer to different kinds of contest and ethnicity. One such piece of books seemed to show the best knowledge of prejudice reduction tactics by offering field examined tools to find out ways to lessen it. This was compiled by Ponterotto et al (2006) as mentioned above. However since this is one little bit of literature, more needs to be focused on not only what prejudice is and the actual fact that it can be overcome, but to really display studies of the reductions in action.

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