Reduction of Cognitive Dissonance in Smokers

  • Yeshara Devendra

Kneer, J. , Glock, S. , & Rieger, D (2012). Fast and not furious? Reduction of Cognitive Dissonance in smokers. Peer evaluated Journal, Vol 43(2), 81-91


Smokers do not wish to injure their wellbeing deliberately or presume a pessimistic self-concept anticipated to irrational behavior. A health-related self-concept and smoking patterns are incoherent with one another. When met with individual detrimental tendencies, the home is threatened and conflict among frame of mind and habit results within an unconstructive drive status. Festinger delineate such pessimistic drive state governments ascognitivedissonance. Three studies surveyed whethercognitivedissonancein smokers is abridged instantaneously or remains steady because of the alleged health risk. They explored response latencies and psycho physiological arousal as further implicit measurements, as dissonance-decreasing methods might arise quickly. Participants rated their smoking-related health threats double for diverse maladies in Research 1, 2, and 3. Studies 1, 2 and 3 assorted through the first testing. Dissimilarity in analysis 2 and 3 reduced during the second assessment, while ratings did not vary. The results are conversed in provisos of implicit routines as measurements forcognitive dissonanceand in provisos of preclusion and involvement courses (Kneer et al. , 2012).

Study 1

Response latencies and evaluations were evaluated to explore arousal and alteration incognitive dissonance. By evaluating each of 12 smoking-interrelated maladies on a 10-point Likert-scale, smokers' and nonsmokers' risk perception was assessed. Response latencies for these rankings were recorded. To examine whether thedissonanceprovoked by the confrontation with own perils of increasing a smoking-allied malady is instantly abridged, the chance perception was evaluated double (Kneer et al. , 2012).

Hypothesis 1:"Due to the own involvement of smokers, medical risk evaluations of distinctive smoking maladies should be elevated compared to nonsmokers" Hypothesis 2:"Response latencies should augment for smokers compared to nonsmokers".

Hypothesis 3:"There is absolutely no dissimilarity among the scores of the first and second test".

Research Question 1:"Do smokers repress pessimistic thoughts to instantly diminish cognitive dissonance? Which is cognitive dissonance in smokers instantaneously abridged by suppressing pessimistic thoughts?" (Kneer et al. , 2012).


Participants and Design

20 smokers and 20 nonsmokers from a German university participated in Review 1. Smokers had smoked typically for 6. 05 years, SD= 2. 72, with a mean of 10. 25, SD= 5. 68, smoking per day (Kneer et al. , 2012).


Applicants packed questionnaires assessing smoking action. Smoking related maladies were released in computer screens for 300ms utmost and asked to press a number key on a range between 0 (no risk of expanding this malady) and 9 (maximum risk of producing this malady). Two practice items were introduced initially to familiarize which were excluded later. Response latencies and ranking data were saved. Participants done a Sudoku grid of medium difficulty in an interpolated activity for 10 minutes where once more the pace of developing the same malady was scored (Kneer et al. , 2012).


20 students from a German university or college ranked 40 maladies concerning their reliance on smoking over a Likert-Scale which range from 1 to 7. Six maladies with method of 5. 75-6. 95, averageSD= 0. 71, were contained (Kneer et al. , 2012).


Rating Data

The rating data was posted to cigarette smoker vs. nonsmoker mixed-model examination of variance as well as final differing factor amid individuals. Effect of smoking status unveiled by analysis of variance F(1, 38) = 87. 43, p<. 001, О·2p=. 69. Smokers graded a heightened risk of creating a smoking related malady (M= 6. 60) than nonsmokers (M= 2. 90) (Kneer et al. , 2012).

Study 2

The 12 maladies were estranged into two diverse lists. Precisely the same amount of maladies not linked to smoking was presented. Participants were confronted with diverse smoking-related and other maladies during first and second tests (Kneer et al. , 2012).

Hypothesis 4:"Evaluations should be increased for smoking-allied maladies than for other maladies, but should not differ as time passes". Hypothesis 5:"There should be an interaction effect among aspect of malady and assessment regarding response latencies" (Kneer et al. , 2012).


Participants and Design

20 smokers from a German University were recruited. The analysis included a smoking related vs. other subject design. Participants experienced smoked normally for 6. 24 months, SD= 3. 12, with a mean of 10. 40, SD= 5. 48, smokes per day (Kneer et al. , 2012).


  1. Two diverse lists (A and B) were included to eliminate results grounded by knowledge of the expected maladies. The 12 smoking-related and other maladies were allocated randomly to each list. Participants were met with one list before and with the other after an interpolated job.
  2. Only smokers participated.
  3. Smoking-related and non-smoking-related maladies were offered to look at whether aroused cognitive dissonance was credited to confrontation with smoking-related maladies and the triggering of a smoking-linked self-concept or anticipated to general health peril and the commencement of any health-related self-concept.

Participants crammed questionnaires assessing their smoking habit to bring about smoking linked home concept. Brands of smoking and other maladies were shown randomly on the computer screen where individuals responded by pressing a number key (Kneer et al. , 2012).


Six maladies with means from 1. 15 up to 2. 20, averageSD= 1. 42, were rated as not related to smoking and were contained in Review 2 as other diseases (Kneer et al. , 2012).


Rating Data

Rating data were posted to smoking-related vs. other research of variance with both factors varying within individuals. ANOVA unveiled F(1, 19) = 85. 94, p<. 001, О·2p=. 82. Smokers rated peril of any budding smoking-related malady higher (M= 5. 11) than peril of developing another malady(M= 1. 77) (Kneer et al. , 2012).

Study 3

Six smoking-correlated maladies were alienated into two different lists. Galvanic skin area response was saved to measure psycho physiological arousal during conception and evaluation of smoking-related maladies for smokers and nonsmokers. Electro dermal activity was chosen as a coherent psycho physiological display because of its sensitive information-processing ability for stimulus and so best displays data accomplished with response latencies. Combining smoking related and nonsmoking related maladies even out the consequences on the arousing properties of the acknowledgement of dissonance in smokers, a significant reason why nonsmokers also do participate as a control for dissonance effects. Members received 3 diverse smoking related maladies during 1st and 2nd tests arbitrarily. If smokers experienced dissonance through the 1st testing and not 2nd, the next hypothesis is expected:

Hypothesis 6:"The augment in psycho physiological arousal must drop in T2 as opposed to T1 for smokers. For nonsmokers, confrontation with smoking-allied maladies shouldn't result incognitivedissonanceand augment in psycho physiological arousal should be equivalent at T1 and T2 due to deficient of specific engagement" (Kneer et al. , 2012).


Participants and Design

From a German school, ten smoking and nonsmoking students were recruited. The study had a smoker versus nonsmoker merged design. Participants experienced smoked typically for 10. 90 years, SD= 3. 03, with a mean of 12. 50, SD= 6. 54, tobacco per day (Kneer et al. , 2012).


Once again participants filled out a questionnaire examining smoking behavior to bring about the smoking-allied personal concept. Names of 3 smoking maladies were randomly presented on a computer screen one after another through 1st and 2nd trials. GSR was assessed with Crazy Divine IOM Lightstone Biometrics USB Widget. Repeated techniques in step one 1 & 2 (Kneer et al. , 2012).


A significant main effect of Smoking Status, F(1, 19) = 25. 69, p<. 001, О·2p=. 57. As with Analysis 1 2, smokers (M= 6. 05) scored their threat of developing a smoking-related malady raised than nonsmokers (M= 2. 78) (Kneer et al. , 2012).


As smoking is a health-impairing action, smokers must utilize dissonance- plummeting strategies other than attitude alteration in order to uphold their habit. Response latencies and evaluations used for to research changes regarding a rise or loss of cognitive dissonance, which elevates when two cognitions are inconsistent with one another. In the first two studies smokers were met with their risk of developing a smoking-related malady. Risk notion of ratings and response latencies were assessed double, indicating the triggering of cognitive dissonance. During the 2nd evaluation dissimilarity between evaluations and response latencies arose, where in fact the former continued to be unchanged and the second option changed. Matching to response latencies, via thought suppression, smokers lowered cognitive dissonance soon after confrontation of heath perils. Because of individual engagement and decreased processing time of dissonance elevating information, for pessimistic smoking-linked information, response latencies arose; later the suppression of thought as a dissonance-reduction strategy paves way to modifications and lowered information processing and changes in response latencies. These changes present making use of implicit options to assess modifications in cognitive dissonance. Downbeat communications entice more attentional capital on the other hand with positive or natural messages.

The concurrent kitchen appliance of explicit and implicit techniques offers a deeper perception in tocognitivedissonance (Kneer et al. , 2012).


First, cognitivedissonancevaries; it's unclear in regards to what exact lessening strategies smokers pertain to. Furthermore, Furthermore, only health-related risk perceptions were examined, people do not smoke cigarettes to be remembered as ill: They highlight positive upshots and figure out how to disregard their health perils (Kneer et al. , 2012).


Smokers sense cognitive dissonance, reflect about their health-peril, and condense cognitive dissonance instantly. Thus, suggesting cognitive dissonance through health-allied admonition labels may well not sway genuine smoking habit because dissonance is abridged instantaneously. Therefore, alert markers and programs centering on the health-allied facets of smoking might not exactly be ample to inspire smokers to renounce. As declared above, smokers do not smoke to injure their wellbeing but instead to achieve constructive results such concerning reduce stress or sociable rewards. Intimidating these upshots might provoke lifelong cognitive dissonance than health-allied information and consequently might help revolutionize smoking patterns (Kneer et al. , 2012).


Kneer, J. , Glock, S. , & Rieger, D (2012). Fast and not furious? Reduced amount of Cognitive Dissonance in smokers. Peer examined Journal, Vol 43(2), 81-91

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