Refractive projective methodsRefraction - is the deviation or change in the direction of a wave of light, sound, or heat, with a change in its velocity when moving from one environment to another or because of its heterogeneity. If we follow the analogy, then this category of projective methods allows us to study the personality by objective changes (distortions) of the speech, motor signs and morphology of the subject's body. In this case, the first two groups of attributes (speech and motion) are dynamic refractions, and the latter (body structure) is static. Refractive projective methods as a category were added to the classification of methods by L. Frank. Projective refraction can be manifested: 1) in features of speech (voice responses to stimuli, voice frequency, timbre of voice, rhythm of pronouncing words, speech-semantic thesaurus, pauses, and so forth); 2) involuntary movements (rhythm and respiration rate, mimicry, pantomime, handwriting, changes in skin tones, etc.); 3) body structure (anthroposcopy, metoposkopiya, palmistry, etc.).
The basis of refractive methods is systematized observation, identification and evaluation of dynamic and morphological bodily changes in subjects in the field of verbal, non-verbal behavioral traits and anthroposcopy.
Through facial expressions, the person informs about the character of the person. The body structure, architecture and poses makes it possible to emotionally draw a conclusion about the personality. Gesticulation causes a feeling of sympathy or antipathy. The voice (the range of audio frequencies, resonance, timbre, etc.) may seem pleasant or unpleasant. Speech, reflecting the intellect, signals the level of human development.
The presentation of the personality is carried out by audioversion, visual, kinesiko-tactile and visual channels of interpersonal communication, which change and are distorted due to the individuality of the person. In a projective experiment, the personality, its psychological characteristics can be reflected in such changes-distortions, they can also be explained and interpreted. Based on the specifics of the expressive means of information exchange, two main communication channels: speech (verbal, verbal, verbal) and non-verbal (non-verbal).
The verbal components of communication, which are subject to projective comprehension, belong to at least two research areas: paralinguistics and extralinguistics.
As VN Pankratov points out, paralinguistics studies speech sound phenomena, which include: range ; tonality; intonation (weak - subordination of nature, elevated - strong nature); the rate of speech; modulation of voice height; rhythm; timbre. Extralinguistics objects are non-verbal expressive qualities of the voice (characteristic specific sounds): laughter, humming, crying, whispering , sighs , etc .; Separating sounds: cough; bullet sounds: pauses, sounds of nasalization: hmm-mm & quot ;, e-ah and others
Speech and non-verbal sound phenomena of the voice are indicators of states, emotions, mood, intellect and character of the subject. There are experimental and practical developments that make it possible to state that not only the degree of truthfulness of information output (the speech channel of a polygraph) but also the personality characteristics of a person can be determined by certain characteristics of the voice.
Among the basic structural elements of speech are allocated: speaking, listening, reading and writing. The connecting link of external information exchange with the reception, internal processing of information and its assimilation is the internal speech, which in many respects expresses the person's personality. It is in the inner speech that the process of projective distortion that develops due to previously formed idioms and due to the presence of symptoms external violation of understanding strong> in the process of speech interaction. The interaction of a person with other people and objects in the process of life activity forms a personal semantic sphere. The points of contact of the individual and social semantic space are in socially designated boundaries, which are the meanings of words. Communication between people is possible only if they understand the meaning of the words used, when the word means for the various individuals participating in the conversation the same thing. But the concept is not a thought, it is a way of thinking. A word is not a concept, since in the process of thinking it is transformed into an individual meaning of the object, i.e. acquires a personal meaning. However, understanding between people is due to the fact that words, as V. Humboldt wrote, "touch the same rings of the chain of mental representations and works of thought, fall into the same mode of the mental instrument, as a result of which the corresponding , but not completely the same concept. "
The personality of the speaker is manifested in his speech, the logic of the presentation of the thought, the speech speed, the vocabulary, and so on. However, within the framework of this section we will touch only on the formal dynamic aspects - the content and semantic components of speech will be discussed below (see paragraph 3.7).
The formal dynamic features of a particular person's speech are directly related to his personality. The pronunciation of words and various sounds is colored by the personality characteristics of the subject and can be an expression of these features. On this mechanism, a projective diagnosis of personality is constructed by measuring the refraction of the individual sound of the voice.
One of the ways to register this individuality is to determine the specific features of speech using a voice stress analyzer. In 2004, a study was made of the dependence of emotional stress on the personality characteristics of subjects using a voice stress analyzer (VSA) on a mixed sample. In the process of research, there were recorded: numerical indicators of personal psychological characteristics on 12 scales of the Multifactorial Personality Questionnaire FPI and indicators of voice changes by frequency characteristics of the voice. Correlation analysis showed the presence of statistically significant links (p & lt; 0.05) between the parameters of voice refractions and personality traits of the subjects. This process is directly related to the balance, the level of depressiveness, attitude to the social environment and is significantly different for men and women.
Later studies confirm these conclusions, supplementing their results. In particular, the change in the voice component under stress, recorded by changing the frequency modulation of the voice and the response time (response) to the question, significantly correlates with the level of impulsiveness of the individual. Thus, in subjects with high scores on the SMIL psychopathy scale, a decrease in the tone of the voice and an increase in the speed of the response are observed. In psychasthenics of the intraverted type with the predominance of the functions of the sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system (mechanisms of internal excitation of nerve impulses, which in the stress situation block the external signal), frequency modulation increases and speech slows down.
Thus, the personality characteristics of a person have a significant influence on the level of emotional stress, expressed in human voice refractions, which can be used as full-fledged projective signs in the process of personality diagnosis.
The non-verbal channel (nonverbalism) of communication, perhaps, underlies mutual understanding between subjects. In its content, it is possible to distinguish such components as: the location of people in space (the area of research of proximics), touching in the process of communication (takisika), the external manifestation of emotions (kinesika: mimicry, gesture and pantomime), etc. A special position in this system is taken by graphology, by means of which the personal characteristics of the subjects are revealed by registering the characters of the handwriting (graphic refractions).
Proxemics, exploring the spatial arrangement of people in the process of interaction, proceeds from the fact that a person as a representative of the animal world has its own territory, airspace, which, as it were, is a continuation of the body. Intrusion into the borders of this space assumes, on the one hand, a change in the level of relations between people, and on the other hand, can be the cause of conflicts. Consideration of communication areas within the framework of projective psychology can occur as the identification and evaluation of a certain personal property, the characteristics of a person who has internalized and appropriated this norm as his own.
A static characteristic and at the same time a projective sign in the process of diagnosing a person is the assessment of posture, poses during the performance of any work, tests, speed of movements, respiration rate, spontaneous statements, the nature of questions and clarifications instructions , etc. These signs make it possible to judge the general attitude or mood of the subject. For example, during a test, a subject can exhibit at least two different behavioral trends. One reflects the desire of the individual, as it were, to "fence off" yourself from the assignment ( distance ), and the other is fully involved in the survey process ( involvement ).
A. I. Cadis notes that the "distance" is manifested in a verbal and (or) non-verbal form. Verbalization of distance can consist of signs of confusion, avoidance of independent actions and thereby shifting responsibility to other people. Non-verbal distant the tendency is characterized by the behavior of the subject - the distance from the subject, the laying of hands behind his back, fussiness, random movement of hands, rapid switching of attention, awkwardness in movements, attempts to manipulate or use stereotyped behavior (for example, drawing geometric figures on a blank), etc. Distantness decreases as the person's motivation for activity increases and can be a consequence of infantile negativism, caution, dissatisfaction and even direct hostility.
Engagement unlike the distances is characterized by the willingness of the subject to immediately immerse himself in the process of activity. In gestures, facial expressions, poses - in the movements of the whole body, in cues with a tendency of "involvement" looks expression of anger or delight, rhythmic movements are joined by the palms, shoulders and back. Motivation for the tendency of "involvement" can be represented as a desire for pleasure and satisfaction or manifestations of hostility and aggression.
Observing the behavior of the test subjects during the testing provides a unique opportunity to obtain additional interpretative features for analyzing the results of the study.
Psychographic analysis of handwriting is a projective dynamic refractive technique of psychological analysis of handwritten text reproduced by the subject. With the help of this technique, the characterological features of the personality of the subject are identified through the projection of his individual characteristics on the product of graphic activity. Diagnosis is carried out by evaluating the integral personality at the social, psychological and somatic levels.
H. Fedorov saw graphic features of the handwriting of people from different eras reflecting the mood and dynamics of the development of the social spirit in connection with the dynamics of social relations. As noted by E. S. Romanova, in the handwriting reflects the structure and personality traits, psychographic information "largely bears the imprint of the individual: her moods, states, feelings, features of the presentation, relationships, etc.". Graphical signs are correlated with character accentuations according to K. Leonhard, MMPI scales or factors of the well-known R. Cattell questionnaire.
The symbolism of the graphic representation reflects the features of the self-presentation of a person as on the conscious, and on unconscious levels. the image of a person expresses his psychological problems, since the sphere of the unconscious exerts his influence on his motor system, by means of which the real action is carried out.
Within the framework of the development of projective graphological ideas, we developed and formalized the methodology of psycho-analysis of handwriting (PAP) for the convenience and acceleration of diagnosis, based on the research of a number of authors. The PAP consists of four sections. The first one allows you to make a psychological analysis of writing individual letters. The second and third allow direct comparison of the text under study with the samples. In the fourth section, an algorithm for graphological examination of a detailed handwriting analysis is placed. The result of diagnostics with the help of the PAP is the characteristics of the subjects, compiled by forming a list of features, processing it into text and psychology and literature.
The use of automated versions of the methodology of the PAP in the personal and professional expertise of the staff showed their effectiveness and consistency with personal and projective tests, in particular with the MMPI, M. Lusher's color election test, L. Sondy's test, etc. The co- 0.6-0.7.
In the process of projective psychodiagnostics, the personality is examined holistically. There are holistic diagnostic programs, that allow you to identify and evaluate complex refractions. Such a method of complex estimation by external dynamic characteristics is the diagnosis of a person's self-presentation in the process of communication, perception of any events or stimuli.
Human behavior can be characterized by different parameters. Behavioral characteristics, which are based on subconscious systems, are determined based on the sequence of the person's internal cognitive process, the model of his behavior.
The modality of the behavior strategy is determined by the leading system knowledge. Different people are dominated by different cognitive systems. The leading cognitive systems include: visual, auditory, kinesthetic and digital (intellectual), evaluated using a number of criteria. An important criterion is the movement of the eyes of a person after a question. The reaction of human eyes is based on a psychophysiological reflex and weakly lends itself to conscious correction. Other criteria include: changes in breathing, skin color tones, muscular tension, tonality, and those speeches, gesticulation and frequency of use of words in speech.
The identification of the dominant system of the flow of the thought process (representation) makes it possible to draw conclusions about the personality characteristics of the subject. For example, with the domination of a visual representative system, a person is prone to everything beautiful. He is accurate, notices and reacts to the external attributes of the situation, prone to clarity, the usual order of things. Externally - this is a type of lean person.
He more sees than he hears or feels & quot ;. With the dominant sonic/auditory system, people actively listen to the world. His mood is more influenced by sounds than external attributes. This is a type of musician, composer. With the leading kinesthetic representative system, a person is generally superfluous, as a rule. He likes comfort. Sits lounging. Everything takes by taste, smell, touch. He must feel everything, he should be comfortable. With the dominant digital (intellectual ) representational system, a person clearly obeys logic. This is a thinker and an intellectual.
Different combinations of cognitive systems are possible: visual-sound/auditory; visually-kinesthetic, etc.
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