Communication of creativity and intelligence
By the early 60s of the XX century. I gained a lot of experience in testing intelligence, which led to a number of problems and new issues. In particular, it turned out that professional and life successes are not directly related to the level of intelligence calculated using IQ tests. Experience has shown that people with not very high IQ are capable of remarkable achievements, and many others whose IQ is significantly higher often fall behind them.
In the Guinness Book of Records, the highest IQ - 228 (!) was recorded in 1989 at the ten-year-old American Marilyn Vaughan. Now she is a journalist. And that's all! No more super-achievements. The second place in the world on the coefficient of intelligence is occupied by an unknown housewife from Brazil. Recently in the press flashed a message about the Bulgarian Daniele Simidchieva, whose IQ is equal to Einstein's and is 200 points. During her life, Semidchieva received five master's degrees in various fields of knowledge. Today, one of the most intelligent women on the planet, the mother of three, is housewife - potential employers are not in a hurry to invite her to work. According to Semidchieva, even at the time when she had a job, the highest salary she received did not exceed $ 150 a month. ^
It was suggested that other qualities of the mind play a decisive role here, which are not covered by traditional testing. It was assumed that the level of creativity will determine the success of a person and his potential as a creator, creator of new ideas.
There was a question about the relationship between creativity and intelligence. Many began to attribute high creative abilities to people with a high IQ, thus creativity was viewed as a consequence of high IQ. English scientist G. Eysenck, relying on significant (but still low) correlations between IQ and Guildford's tests on divergent thinking, expressed the opinion that creativity is a component of the overall mental endowment. So, can we say that a person with a high IQ will have a high level of creativity? The answer to this question allows us to give a longitudinal study, carried out since the beginning of the 1920s in the USA.
In this study, L. Termen and his colleagues selected about 1500 children from more than 150,000 schoolchildren who showed the highest results in intelligence tests (IQ over 136). Then, over the course of 60 years, the control measures of vital successes were achieved four times by highly intelligent children.
It turned out that almost all the members of the sample of Termen achieved a high social status. All without exception, successfully graduated from school, and two-thirds - and the university. According to the number of academic degrees, published books and registered patents, the Termen group was 30 times higher than the control sample level. By the way, the income among the members of the group was four times higher than the US average.
However, none of the surveyed showed exceptional talent in the field of science or art, did not create anything that could be regarded as a significant contribution to world culture. At the same time, one child was found who did not reach 136 points in the study of Termen, but in the afterlife achieved what none of the elect did - he won the Nobel Prize.
It is interesting that 10 Nobel laureates are not prohibitively high and averages 136 points. Some of the winners of this level is superior, but someone before him and not reach. So, the IQ of the great Einstein was equal to 200 points. People with such intelligence around the world - a unit, but a unit in the scale of the planet - thousands of people, but who of them compared with Einstein and was able to come up with something as original?
So, the direct dependence of creativity on intelligence L. Termen did not find. You can be an intellectual and not be a creative person.
Many researchers believe that when diagnosing creativity, you should abandon the hard time limits assigned to the task. M. Vollach and K. Kogan gave the subjects as much time as they needed to solve the problem, testing was conducted in the form of a game, any answer was accepted. Under these test conditions, the correlation between creativity and intelligence was close to zero, i.е. the property of creativity reveals its complete independence from the intellect. Vollah and Kogan identified 4 groups of children with different levels of development of intelligence and creativity, characterized by ways to adapt to external conditions and solve problems.Children who have a high level of intelligence and creativity are confident in their abilities, have an adequate self-esteem, show great initiative, personal independence of judgments and actions, are highly successful, show talent, are socially adaptable. Children with a low level of creativity, but high intelligence, strive for school successes, but they suffer extremely bad luck, they are afraid to express their opinion, take risks, they are afraid of being struck by self-esteem, they distance themselves from their classmates. Children with low intelligence and high creativity often fall into the category of rogue, poorly adapt to school requirements, often have hobbies and hobbies on the side, "strange dreamers" are not understood by either teachers or peers.
Children with a low level of intelligence and low level of creative ability externally adapt well, keep in the middle, have an adequate self-esteem, a low level of abilities is compensated by the development of social intelligence, sociability.
Then, in the course of numerous experiments, it turned out that highly intelligent subjects may not exhibit creative behavior when solving problems, but there are no low-intellectual creatives. Later, E. Torrens, based on extensive empirical research, formulated a model of the ratio of creativity and intelligence: at 10 to 120 points, total intelligence and creativity form a single factor, at 10 over 120 points, creativity loses its dependence on intelligence.
Further studies did little to clarify this situation, since they led to contradictory results. N. Kogan and M. Wollach established the independence of the factors of creativity and intelligence.
In our country, in the studies conducted by the staff of the abilities laboratory of the Institute of Psychology of the United States Academy of Sciences, a paradoxical dependence was revealed: highly creative individuals solve problems of reproductive thinking worse than all other subjects. This makes it possible to explain many of the difficulties experienced by creatively gifted children in high school, where a lot of time has to solve simple, patterned intellectual tasks.
Some scientists argue that creativity is determined by a set of life-assimilated mental actions, skills and strategies. Evidence in favor of this was obtained in studies on the formation of creativity. For example, Goodnaw, Ward, Haddon and Litton demonstrated a direct dependence of creativity on the conditions of socialization, down to the level of educational institutions in which different people get education.
In other words, there are conservative schools that shape performers - creative individuals do not get along with them, they are rejected by them; and there are creative schools that literally teach to think creatively. True, creators come from the first (remember the same Thomas Edison, who could not cope with the routine program), and the latter do not guarantee the absolute creative return of their graduates. Probably, something is embedded in the person himself, not only in the cognitive sphere, but also in the personal sphere.
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