Representations of the general model of the psychological experiment processThe model of the process of psychological research represents the following sequence: the emerging social or scientific need leads to hypothetical representations that require experimental approbation, as a result of which the hypothesis is accepted or rejected (Figure 4.6).
Fig. 4.6. Algorithm of psychological research
In scientific research an important role is played by hypotheses , i.e. certain predictions based on theoretical research, a small amount of experimental data, observations, guesses. Verification of hypotheses put forward can be carried out in the course of a specially set experiment.
Simulation of the experiment is possible on the basis of understanding the essence of the research procedure itself. Although the experimental method was introduced into psychology from the natural sciences, it immediately became a "psychological" because of introspection of the results by the subjects themselves. The modeling of the procedure from the moment the experiment entered the psychological science was based on the tradition of behaviorism: "stimulus (S) - reaction (R)". It is in this vein that the initial theoretical basis for the psychological experiment dates W. Wundt. Researchers at the Würzburg School (N.Ah) clearly questioned the adequacy of the "S-R" model. for use in psychological purposes. They noted that the researcher himself interferes in the research situation (instruction, communication with the subject, etc.), and the stimulus must be considered both as an experimental influence and as interpersonal interaction. LS Vygotsky has otherwise seen the unfitness of the behaviorist model of the experiment. He wrote that the scheme "S-R considers the psyche of the subject as reactive and it is applicable only to the study of lower mental functions. In his opinion, only the activity of the subject should be the basis for studying the higher mental functions of a person. Therefore, the "tool method", involving active human intervention in the situation, its active role, behavior, consisting in the introduction of new stimuli, should be dominant in the psychological experiment. Thus, Vygotsky introduced a three-term model of the experiment (Figure 4.7):
Fig. 4.7. Three-member model of the experiment (Vygotsky)
Representatives of the activity and socio-psychological approaches in psychology under the "tool (I) understand the process of communication (impact) of the researcher and the subject (personal impact, sympathy-antipathy, instruction, etc.). This, on the one hand, is a feature of the psychological experiment and, on the other hand, can serve as the cause of artifacts.
Since in natural scientific psychological research the material is human behavior, the so-called model of the experiment is described by a special logical language. Logic of the external description of behavior was developed by K. Levin, C. Fillmore, G. X. von Wrycht, GA Ball, J. Nutten, and others. In social psychology, T. Parsons dealt with the problem of logic of behavior, however his theory did not reach the level formalization, which is necessary for strict comparison with other developments.
United States researchers AF Lazursky, SL Rubinshtein, Ya. A. Ponamarev, AV Brushlinsky and others used global environment (world, environment, set of objects), system (agent, subject), action behavior, act), interaction environment and system. The system was considered as initially active. As the basic concepts, the state and time .
In modern developments of psychological experiment models, the principle of reality is guided by an attempt to distinguish between explicit and hidden variables, their relations, connections and construct the logic of interpretation. It also takes into account changing states of the world and the subject (human, system). There is a description of the interaction of the system and the environment, and not just the impact of the system on the environment. We consider two forms of interaction between the environment and the system, where the behavior is directed to the environment (performing action, transformation) and the characteristic of changing the space-time states of the system (locomotion, search activity). It is also possible to two options for describing behavior and action - active expedient and reactive behavior. In accordance with this, two types of explanation are defined: teleological and causal. Stressing the importance of comparisons of the teleological and causal explanations of the experimental situation, Bernstein paid special attention to their complementarity with preservation of the leading role of the teleological.
Experimentation in psychology is fraught with an abundance of uncertainties that become a source of error. Often there are situations when, the fuller the psychological data, the greater the probability of ambiguities and errors. The problem of the model of the psychological experiment consists not so much in the adequate application of statistical procedures (many sophisticated mathematical methods for analyzing and interpreting the data have been developed), but rather in the application of statistics for adequately selected variables . There are problems with the validity of the dynamics of variables, the ability to find the facts of their change due to experimental influence. The explanation of the dynamics of variables in a psychological experiment is akin to hermeneutics (V. Dilthey), the "art of understanding" (F. Schleiermacher) of the personality of the subject.
A significant problem in the interpretation of experimental results, especially in the field of psychodiagnostic research, is the choice of the psychological interpretation strategy . The first strategy can include ideas about the determination of the interaction of opposing traits in the structure of the individual. In this perspective, a person is represented as a correlation of binary personal properties. The second strategy differs special profile or "radicalism". Applying the circular motion principle F. Schleiermacher, according to which the whole is comprehended on the basis of its parts, and parts only in relation to the whole, it is possible to declare the possibility of revealing the so-called "radical of the person". Binary systems of opposing traits in the structure of the personality can have a certain accent - a radical, which consists of parts (traits, qualities) and represents the whole, the structure of the personality. The task of the experimental method is to reveal this structure, determine its dynamic components and a rigid, relatively unchanged "framework."
Thus, the model of experimental research is a system of interaction between the researcher and the subject in the experimental situation.
The main elements of the experiment process model can be:
a) object of influence (agent, subject, person, group) with its controlled and uncontrolled parameters - subject of influence (age, gender, level of knowledge, skills, skills, certain mental variables, motivation) (OB_t - before exposure; OB_2-after impact);
b) Action (understanding instructions, making decisions, executing decisions, satisfaction, fatigue) (D);
c) formal interaction of the subject and the researcher (experimental task, experimental impact, instrumental task, instruction, instrument)
d) emotional interaction of the subject and the researcher (informal relations, sympathy-antipathy) (EV-AI);
e) interaction in the surveyed group (formal and informal relations, "group effect") (VOG);
e) interaction with the environment (background, set of objects, information factors, habitability factors) (VS).
Temporal, procedural and spatial factors order the elements of the system, as shown in the diagram (Figure 4.8).
Fig. 4.8. Process diagram (model) of the psychological experiment
The task of modeling the experimental effects is the maximum approximation of the experiment to reality, on the one hand, and to the hypothesis, on the other. This raises the problem of interpreting the results of the experiment. VN Druzhinin proposed a scheme of relations between the main characteristics of the experimental study (Figure 4.9).
F. Selye wrote that theories are threads that connect the facts, and since all the biological elements are not strictly defined and, moreover, overlap, it is impossible to develop unambiguous and unchanging connections between the facts that would never need revision. A good theory should combine the largest number of facts in the simplest possible ways.
The greatest approximation to a theory or hypothesis is the main task of designing an experiment. This aspiration corresponds to the so-called ideal experiment (J. Campbell). It is practically impossible to implement it, since it is assumed that the researcher, manipulating an independent variable (NEP), will exercise complete control over the dependent variable (ZP). It is also assumed that the experimenter will be able to ensure the constancy of the conditions, the equivalence and invariability of the samples, absence time characteristics, the possibility of simultaneous carrying out of experimental influences, as well as the repetition of the experiment in different situations and with any subjects. A measure of the approximation of the "ideal experiment" the hypothesis is operational validity.
Fig. 4.9. Scheme of relations between the main characteristics of experimental research
J. Campbell real experiment linked with internal validity, i.e. a measure of the effect on the dependent variable of those conditions (independent and external variables) that the researcher operates on. Real experiment is carried out under real conditions, in which the variables are not completely controlled, which is the cause of artifacts (bias effects of the experiment). That is why detailed planning of the experiment solves the problem of increasing validity.
The experimental method in psychology correlates with the concept of "full compliance experiment", within which model reproduction of practice is carried out. The measure of the correspondence of such a study is external validity, i.e. The possibility of transferring empirical results to real life, their generalization for other similar objects. According to J. Campbell, the external validity of psychological research in the absolute is not achievable. However, this problem can be compensated by means of sample representativeness.
A constructive validity is a measure of the adequacy of the interpretation of experimental results, its correspondence to the provisions of the psychological theory. A good experiment, according to J. Campbell, should identify the optimal sequence of the alleged cause (the experimental effect) and the effect, determine the relationship between the independent and dependent variables, exclude alternative psychological hypotheses and the influence of external variables, thereby reflecting the psychological reality in the experimental model. >
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