Research Article Critique: Ideas of Helping

Research Article Critique

  • Wong Hiu Tung

Research Article Critique

Sprecher, S. , Fehr, B. , & Zimmerman, C. (2007). Expectation for disposition enhancement consequently of aiding: The effect of gender and compassionate love. Love-making Tasks, 56, 543-549. doi: 10. 1007/s11199-007-9192-6

Introductory of summary of the study

In this information, Sprecher, Fehr, and Zimmerman (2007) attemptedto check out how gender and the propensity to experience the compassionate love for others are from the forecast of the enlargement of positive spirits from giving help to others and obtaining help from others. They aim to examine whether the several psychological ideas of supporting, which suggested that folks provide help due to receiving benefits, are appropriate or not. More specifically, the benefit received from being able to help may be the self-benefit, which is the development of positive spirits.

As a result, the participants, 47 males and 133 females from U. S. Midwestern public university, were asked to complete the randomly assigned questionnaire, either visualize themselves as the giver or the recipient of the supporting acts, through the class. Firstly, participants were asked to rate the degree to which each helping behaviour was among compassionate love. Secondly, they were asked to imagine the eight helping acts, which engaged making a special meal, buying a present-day, expressing empathy and caring, verbal support for a tough decision, providing treatment when sick and tired, a surprise surprise, a call when sensing down, and sticking up for another, taking place with good friend and to assess what level would they experience a rise in positive thoughts as a consequence of each one of the helping function. Finally, they completed the Compassionate Love Range about their compassionate love for others.

This study found that all assisting behaviours in this research were cases of compassionate love and were expected to increase the ambiance of the average person. More specially, females are more likely to have an expectation of improving positive mood therefore of both helping and receiving help in a relational context than males. Furthermore, individuals who are saturated in compassionate love for others are more likely to forecast their enhancement of positive feeling from offering and receiving help than those who find themselves lower on compassionate love. Altruism and gender role will be the meaning of the results.


Research Topic and Question

The problem is obviously stated and it is researchable by analyzing how gender and compassionate love are associated with feeling enhancement from supporting respectively.

There are three adjustable in the research question and most of them are clearly defined. The disposition enhancement is plainly thought as the increase of positive emotion, such as happiness, pleasure, or satisfaction. The compassionate love also had well-defined with the support of forceful mental health literature. Nevertheless, the definition of helping behaviours was ambiguous. The assisting behaviours are described briefly that only included the eight helping acts, and stated that those helping acts are commonly experienced in the friendships of young adults. Therefore, it could need to provide a clear classification of supporting behaviours to be able to clarify which behavior can be engaged in the situation of helping within this study.

Literature Review

The review is relevant to the study questions and design. The experts cite past studies of the connection between helping and different parameters respectively, such as gender, receiving benefit, and the situational and dispositional variables. In addition, the review included the previous studies which related the design and the research question of today's study and described the restrictions of the prior studies in order to justify the items with their research. However, the review didn't include the books which contradicts to the prediction of the study, for example, the helping behaviours might not exactly be dependant on the rewarding.


The individuals were similar in term of education level, ethnicity and sociable class to lessen the intervention of those variable. Insufficient the method of selecting the sample is the restriction of this review. It merely defined the amount of participants and the percentage of the majority and the background of the members, but have not reported the sampling method. Furthermore, the percentage of the individuals' gender might not exactly befitting this research which the number of the female members was almost triple of the number of male participants. Because the gender is one of the substantial factors in this review, it is hardly to conclude the consequences of gender in the expectation for feeling enhancement because of the imbalance of the ratio of the individuals' gender.

Method Selection

The decided on method is appropriate to the research question. Since the questionnaire was the most likely and convenient method of self-report, it is suited to examining the expectation of spirits enhancement. In addition, the scenario analysis can relatively be provided adequate answers to the study question. As the participants can be easier to imagine the several helping functions by the provided cases than the non-scenario questions, the members can more accurately predict the emotional changing after providing or acquiring help.

The selected aiding acts may well not be the most proper signal of helping behaviour as the limitation of the analysis, especially making a particular meal, buying a present and giving a surprise present. Generally, those three aiding behaviours in this research can't be generalized as aiding behaviours because these behaviours might occur in other situations rather than the situation of helping, for example, we may buy a present to our friends for their birthday. Additionally, the participants may increase their disposition because of the external reward instead of receiving help. For example, the participants may feel happy, as well as disposition enhancement, due to gift alternatively than receiving the assistance. Therefore, the validity of the study is low because the three helping serves are not appropriate as the assisting behaviours.


The designed treatment is clearly defined about the work of the experts and appropriate to answer the question of the study. First, the pre-test implemented to the small band of similar students assessed the potency of the eight aiding behaviours. It had been appropriated to ensure that the eight helping behaviours are suitable to measure the mood enhancement consequently of those assisting acts. Second, the task had safeguarded the confidentiality of the research participants because of the private and voluntary questionnaire. One restriction of the analysis is usually that the questionnaire was completed during the class time. In general, enough time pressure mostly happened in the lecture as a result of pressing programs. Therefore, the participants may complete the questionnaire arbitrarily, as well as responding to inaccurately, as a result of time pressure. As a result, the questionnaire can be completed in their leisure time in order to lessen the time pressure as an influential factor.

Data Gathering and Analysis

There are several advantages in this section. The info are presented obviously and fully that the results are clearly separated into three parts of the research question which base on the parts of the questionnaire: the assisting behaviours were cases of compassionate love, the relationship between gender and the expectation of feeling enhancement because of this of the assisting works, and the connection between compassionate love and the expectation of feelings enhancement as a result of the assisting acts. Also, the correct inferential and descriptive information are clearly defined in word and provided in organized furniture.

Furthermore, the email address details are clearly explained which correlations didn't reach the importance for the assisting acts in offering and acquiring conditions. For instance, male and feminine participants' scores of the providing or receiving a surprise gift idea did not change significantly in expectation of spirits enhancement.

Interpretations, Conclusions and Discussion

The researchers clearly concluded that the results of the study provide support for the two hypotheses. However, the results may well not conclude that the gender is associate with the forecast of a specific self-benefit because the number of male participants are comparative extremely smaller than the number of female participants. Therefore, the connection between gender and expectation for mood development is not representative.

Although the researchers made a clear interpretations of the results terms of the gender role and altruism, they had not explained the results of failing woefully to reach the importance for the supporting serves as the restriction of the study as well. For example, the helping function of supplying or getting a surprise surprise was not a big change from male and feminine participants. Therefore, the analysis would also be described the contradictory results for providing well-founded interpretations of the data.

The restrictions of the study are imperfect that the research workers just considered two limits of the analysis, which focus on a context and an psychological consequence of supporting behaviours. Some confound is absent to provide in the analysis, like the cultural differences, get older. Moreover, the individuals' disposition also be enhanced by the external rewards alternatively than receiving or offering help, such as obtaining a gift or meals, when the participants imagine the problem. Therefore, the researchers may need to present the other restrictions of the analysis.

Finally, the research workers are shown the advice for future studies comprehensively. The researcher advised the near future studies can look at how gender and compassionate love affiliate with the expectation of negative feeling as the result of supporting behaviours in other relational context, which based on the limitation of the analysis. Therefore, it's the contribution of this research.

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