Research as it was described by Leedy and Ormond (2010) it's the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information to increase our knowledge of the phenomenon under analysis. Again it was defined by Merrian-Webster collegiate dictionary, tenth model as the capability to search or investigate exhaustively, studious inquiry or evaluation; especially inspection or experimentation targeted at the breakthrough and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted ideas or laws and regulations in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or modified theories or regulations.
Research was identified by the MBA knowledge basic (2010) as an original contribution to the prevailing stock of knowledge making because of its advancement. It is the pursuit of fact by making use of study, observation, comparison and test.
Research is all about addressing a concern or requesting and answering a question or resolving a problem, so first of all identify a concern, Talk with people who want or need the analysis possibly find out what's already known about any of it. Next talk with experts and/or read their reviews and the initial research that is done on the topic. Plan, cost, and do the analysis accordingly. Write it up and post it for assessment. A good research work is not complete until it is recorded and post for analysis or better still for publication.
Anytime the topic of research is talked about, a good question that involves head is, could research be observed simply as the collecting of information in regards to a particular subject matter?. In responding to this question, I am going to list below what is unique to all research work. Although research work ranges in complexity and period and but it is understood to check out a certain structural process. Though step order may vary depending on subject matter and the researcher, the following steps are usually part of all formal research, both basic and applied.
The features below are distinctive and common to every work that is known as research work.
CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH WORK
Identification of the topic and subject matter area
Discovering a need or gap in something creates question on what is to be achieved, it is this question that first ignites a chain reaction that leads to a process call research. An inquisitive brain is the start of research (Leedy and Ormond 2010). It really is in the attempt to resolve this question or problem that research work sought.
A clear, unambiguous affirmation of the situation is crucial (Leedy & Ormond 2010). The best goal of the research must be established in a grammatically complete phrase that specifically and accurately answer fully the question.
Plan of Action
Research work consisted of a carefully prepared itinerary of actions to lead to the final destination. i. e. the research goal. Research is not really a blind excursion into the unknown. Researchers plan and design their research work, use a specific technique in a purposeful way, with respect to the work at hands. Apart from discovering the research goal, how one propose to achieve the goal is very important.
It is very useful when main problems are broken down into little chunks of work that tend to be manageable. Addressing each of these sub-problems allows the researcher to be together with the situation at the same time addresses the main problem in an improved way. Sometimes if this is not properly done could make the study work more troublesome and too complicated to manage.
Though an hypothesis in research work cannot be tested rather only supported by surviving rounds of methodical evaluation which can render it to be "predictive or true" in nature. As mentioned by Leedy and Ormond, hypothesis is thought as a reasonable supposition, a reasonable guess, and educated conjecture that provides a tentative explanation for a happening under research.
Generally a hypothesis is utilized to make predictions that may be tested by watching the outcome of the experiment. If the outcome is inconsistent with the hypothesis, then your hypothesis is declined. However, if the outcome is constant with the hypothesis, the test is said to support the hypothesis. As time passes if a particular hypothesis is reinforced by an evergrowing body of data, they develop into theories.
A Theory is an organised body of concepts and principles designed to explain to make clear a particular occurrence (Leedy & Ormond 2010).
Making Critical Assumptions
Assumptions have emerged as sine qua non of research. The assumptions made must be valid normally the research is meaningless. Assumptions are usually self evident, hence the researcher may contemplate it unnecessary to mention them.
Gathering of data
Research work requires the collection and interpretation of data so that they can resolve the problem that initiated the study. Data that individual are unable to interpret are worthless, can never be used to answer any questions.
Research is, by its aspect, cyclical or even more exactly helical. It uses logical, developmental steps. Begins by requesting a question, the logical resolution of the situation or tentative answer to the question completes the pattern. In its real sense research is seldom conclusive, it could be more effectively conceived of as a helix, or spiral, in looking to answer one question, one comes across additional issues that needs resolving and so the process must start anew.
Considering the question above, the answer is NO. The primary difference between research and "information gathering" is that to do research, you must interpret data, bring conclusions and come up with new questions. Research is cyclical, or, as this article says, helical. Answering one question inevitably uncovers new questions. Research causes more research.
Hence the following were Iisted by Leedy & Ormond as what should not be referred to as research work.
Research is not mere information gathering
Research is not mere travel of facts from one location to another
Research is not only looking for information
Research is not really a catchword used to get attention
No subject which purpose the research is meant for, the overall research technique is fundamentally the same.
2. The Researcher turns the question to a clearly explained research problem
3. The researcher poses a temporary hypothesis
4. Search begins: Literature survey on the subject
5. Acquire data
6. The data is arranged mutually into a reasonable organisational structure
7. The researcher analysed and interprets the info to ascertain their so this means.
8. Either the info seemingly resolves the problem or not.
Diagrammatic representation of research process
TYPES OF RESEARCH
Many researchers tend to categorise research broadly into two categories:
In categorising research predicated on the methodology, it can be broadly categorised into two divisions, each which are sub divided into smaller categories:
In practice the two approaches require similar processes (e. g. , Formation of one or more hypothesis, overview of related litterature, collection and evaluation of data).
Quantitative research is dependant on the measurement of amount or amount. It really is suitable to phenomena that can be expressed in conditions of quantity. It often starts with a specific hypothesis to be examined. They isolate the variables that should be tested, control for extraneous factors, use a standardised technique to collect some form of numerical data, and use statistical techniques to analyse and pull conclusions from the data.
Quantitative researcher seeks explanations and predictions that will generalise to other folks and places, their intent is to establish, verify, or validate interactions and develop generalisations that donate to existing theories. They stand for mainstream approach to research, hence carefully organised guidelines exist for doing them. Concepts, variables, hypothesis and methods of measurement tend to be defined before the study begins and stay the same throughout (Leedy & Ormond 2010). Because all research work depends heavily on rational reasoning, quantitative researchers rely closely on deductive reasoning, beginning with certain idea e. g. hypothesis and ideas and draw logical conclusions from them. Though, it will probably be worth noting they are not specifically deductive.
In reporting the effect, the quantitative experts use statistics variables like mean, method, median to stand for the outcome with their research. Email address details are usually offered in a written report that employs formal scientific style. Generally, since it is conducted in a scientifically manipulated environment like lab, it sometimes does not really represent the real naturalistic condition of the participant, it is seen as being man-made. Hence the conclusions of such research could be flawed as not being generalised more specific to a specific environment.
Because quantitative design is suitable for some specific kind of research, it will always be highly recommended to be versatile in its utilization, as incorporating both quantitative and qualitative methods helps us to answer so many research questions, rather than restricting ourselves to only 1 approach.
This is concerned with qualitative occurrence, i. e. , phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind. Features that cannot easily be reduced to numerical beliefs. For instance, whenever we are thinking about investigating the reasons for human patterns, we quite often discuss of 'Determination Research', an important type of qualitative research. This sort of research is aimed at discovering the main motives and wishes, using in depth interviews for the purpose. They seek an improved understanding of intricate situations. Attitude or opinion research, i. e. , research designed to discover how people feel or what they think about a particular subject or organization is also qualitative research. Qualitative research is specially important in the behavioral sciences where the aim is to discover the primary motives of human being behaviour. Through such research we can analyse the many factors which inspire people to react in a specific manner or which will make people like or dislike a particular thing.
The qualitative research process is more holistic and emergent with specific concentration, design, measurement tools (e. g. Interviews). In data collection, the researchers operate under the assumptions that reality is not easily split into discrete measurable parameters. The data examination is more subjective in dynamics and the researcher made a significant use of inductive reasoning. It's important to notice here too that qualitative research is not only inductive.
During reporting, qualitative experts create interpretive narratives using their company data and make an effort to record the complexity of the sensation under study (Leedy and Ormond 2010).
It may be explained, however, that to use qualitative research used is relatively a hard job and therefore, while doing such research, you need to seek guidance from experimental psychologists.
This is the most commonly used research types. Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different types, equally referred to as Ex lover post facto. They are generally used to discover causes even though the researcher cannot control the factors.
As posited by the MBA team, they are being used to acquire information regarding the current position of the phenomena to describe "what is present" regarding parameters or conditions in a situation. The methods involved range from the survey which details the position quo, the correlation research which investigates the partnership between factors, to developmental studies which seek to determine changes over time.
There are two basic types of descriptive research: longitudinal studies and cross-sectional studies.
Longitudinal studies: That is time series analyses that produce repeated measurements of the same individuals, thus allowing someone to monitor behaviour such as brand-switching. However, longitudinal studies aren't necessarily representative because so many people may refuse to participate as a result of commitment required.
Cross-sectional studies: This study makes use of a sample of the populace to make measurements at a particular time. A special kind of cross-sectional research is a cohort evaluation, which tracks an aggregate of people who experience the same event within the same time interval over time. Cohort analyses are of help for long-term forecasting of product demand
The researcher does not have any control over the factors, he can only just record what has took place or what is happening.
As posited by Nic Haffner in his paper "THE BASICS of Writing Argumentative and Analytical Research Paperwork". The researcher is expected to have completely explored the topic being covered such a way that his/her view on this issue could be looked at as an expert knowledge. The researcher is expected to use facts or information already available, and review them to make a critical analysis of the topic under discuss.
The goal is to provide expert knowledge in a manner that is divided into the writer's own words. Within this research the article writer answers the study question objectively by getting into the project without pre-conceived views about the topic.
Once the writer becomes familiar with the topic they could patch together their studies that best signify the purpose of the paper. Put simply, an analytical research newspaper combines serious contemplation with critical evaluations of the question.
This is often referred to as Action research. It refers to scientific study and research that looks for to solve useful problems. Applied research is utilized to find answers to each day problems facing a contemporary society or an commercial/business organisation, cure disorder, and develop ground breaking technologies. Research targeted at certain conclusions facing a concrete social or business problem can be an example of applied research. Research to recognize social, monetary or political styles that may have an effect on a particular establishment or duplicate research or the marketing research are types of applied research. The central goal of applied research is to discover a solution for a few pressing sensible problems.
As described in wikipaedia. It really is defined as the study completed to increase understanding of fundamental guidelines. Many sometimes the end results have no immediate or immediate commercial benefits. However, in the long term it is the basis for many commercial products and applied research. It advances fundamental understanding of the human world, it issues the status quo. Important research is the source of all new clinical ideas, it can be exploratory, descriptive, or explanatory; however, explanatory research is the most common.
Basic research creates new ideas, principles and theories, which may well not be immediately employed; though are the foundations of modern progress and development in different fields. Today's computers could not can be found without the natural research in mathematics conducted over a century ago, that there is no known practical application in those days. Basic research seldom helps practitioners straight with their everyday concerns. Nevertheless, it stimulates new means of thinking about deviance that have the potential to revolutionize and dramatically improve how professionals deal with a challenge. A new idea or fundamental knowledge is not produced only, basic research can build new knowledge. Nonetheless, basic research is vital for nourishing the extension of knowledge. The purpose of basic research is aimed towards finding information which has a broad foundation of applications and therefore, increases the already existing sorted out body of clinical knowledge. Basic research is mainly carried out by colleges.
This relates to some abstract idea(s) or theory. It really is a type of intermediate theory that try to connect to all aspects of inquiry (e. g. , problem meaning, purpose, literature review, technique, data collection and evaluation). Conceptual frameworks can act like maps that give coherence to empirical inquiry. Because conceptual frameworks are probably so close to empirical inquiry, they take different forms depending upon the study question or problem.
It is normally employed by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones.
This is a study that depends on experience or observation only, often without due respect for system and theory. It is data centered research, discovering conclusions which are capable of being verified by observation or experiment. It is also call experimental research, in such a research it is necessary to access facts firsthand, at their source, and actively to go about doing certain things to stimulate the development of desired information. In such a research, pass away researcher must first provide himself with a working hypothesis or think as to the probable results. He then works to get enough facts (data) to confirm or disprove his hypothesis. He then creates experimental designs which he considers will change the folks or the materials concerned in order to bring forth the required information. Such research is thus characterised by the experimenter's control over the variables under study and his deliberate manipulation of 1 of them to review its effects. Empirical research is appropriate when substantiation is sought that certain variables have an impact on other variables in some way. Evidence accumulated through tests or empirical studies is today considered to be the most powerful support possible for a given hypothesis.
OTHER TYPES OF RESEARCH
All other types of research are versions of one or even more of the aforementioned stated approaches, predicated on either the goal of research, or the time required to attain research, on the surroundings in which research is performed, or on the basis of some other similar factor. Form the point of view of their time, we can think of research either as one-time research or longitudinal research. In the former case the research is limited to an individual time-period, whereas in the last mentioned case the research is carried on over several time-periods. Research can be field-setting research or lab research or simulation research, depending after the environment in which it is usually to be completed. Research can as well be comprehended as clinical or diagnostic research. Such research follow case-study methods or indepth approaches to reach the basic causal relations. Such studies usually go deep in to the causes of things or occurrences that interest us, using really small samples and very deep probing data gathering devices. The study may be exploratory or it might be formalized. The objective of exploratory research is the development of hypotheses rather than their testing, whereas formalized clinical tests are those with substantial framework and with specific hypotheses to be tested. Historical research is whatever utilizes historical resources like documents, remains, etc. to study occurrences or ideas of the past, including the school of thought of persons and groupings at any remote control point of your time. Research may also be categorised as conclusion-oriented and decision oriented. While doing conclusion focused research, a researcher is free to pick up a difficulty, redesign the enquiry as he proceeds and is also prepared to conceptualize as he would like. Decision-oriented research is always for the need of a decision manufacturer and the researcher in this case is not free to embark after research matching to his own inclination. Businesses research can be an exemplory case of decision oriented research since it is a scientific method of providing executive departments with a quantitative basis for decisions regarding businesses under their control.
GENERAL TOOLS OF RESEARCH
Caution must be exercised when talking about research tools never to equate them with technique of research. A study tool as identified by Leedy and Ormond is a particular system or strategy the researcher uses to collect, manipulate or interpret data whilst the research methodology is the overall strategy the researcher consumes carrying out the research project, though to some extent this process dictates the particular tools the researcher selects.
The pursuing are six basic tools of research
The Library and its own Resources.
The Computer and Its Software.
Techniques of Measurement.
The Human Head.
Facility with Language
IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
Because research is designed to solve particular existing problems, so its vitality to human lifestyle is beyond any uncertainty very important. Need for research work slash across all individuals endeavours, which range from medicines to politics.
For example, business research study can be very useful in analyzing the market and demand for the new product. Companies which execute clinical tests before buying any business can always reduce their risks and uncertainties. Research study can also give food for thought to the new analysts. In addition, from educational point of view, a research research can boost the critical and analytical thinking about the students, therefore, in most of the establishments small research studies are made as essential component of the syllabus. Research helps build the value, trustworthiness and promote professionalism
In conclusion I'll like to reference Wayne et al (2008) in their book "The art of research" emphasised the importance of research for the reason that with out a good and dependable released research work all of us would have been locked in the opinion of the moment, prisoners of that which you only experienced or dupes to whatever our company is told. In every this is above, we discovered that it's the duty of the researcher to donate to the knowledge of the phenomenon and to connect that understanding to others.
Learning about doing research as rightly put by Leedy and Ormond (2010), are of value much beyond that of merely satisfying an academic program need. Research methods and their program to real life problems are skills that will aid the entire world for so long as the world is available, because the world is full of issues that beg for solutions, consequently it's packed with research activity. Life keeping medical interventions and cutting edge technological innovations are products of research activity. Hence I agree with the fact completely with Leedy and Ormond with their position that research is more than mere educational banality, it is vital and it's really a dynamic make that is indispensable to medical and wellness of the world and it humans and non-human inhabitants.
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