Human development can be defined as "organized changes and continuities in the individual that occur between conception and death" (Sigelman & Rider, 2009, p. 2). The organized changes which happen over the life-span can be categorised into three organizations, particularly physical development, cognitive development and psychosocial development.
Physical and cognitive development entails growth of the body, physiological systems, changes in understanding and other mental process. "Psychosocial development is changes in personal and social development such as personality attributes, social skills and associations and roles performed in the family and the bigger contemporary society" (Sigelman & Rider, 2009, p. 3). All three areas of development are interconnected, physical and cognitive changes occur within the average person who in turn interacts with other individuals and the environment. The cybernetics between the systems means changes in virtually any one part will have an effect on the others.
A amount of ideas have been developed through the years which seek to explain the introduction of humans over their life span. One of the most influential ideas developed was by Erik Erikson who thought humans experienced an eight stage psychosocial developmental process. He posits, that each level of life is seen as a conflict between rivalling tendencies which have to be efficiently negotiated for normal healthy development to occur. Some literature shows that that development is achieved by striking a balance between your two opposing pushes in each stage. The first four phases occur during child years; one during adolescence and the ultimate three during adulthood.
The eight phases of Erikson model will be talked about briefly followed by a commentary on the writer's view of the theory. The initial stage is trust versus mistrust, based on whether the baby needs are found by their caregivers. If these are met, they learn to trust others, if not they become wary and dubious.
The second stage is autonomy versus shame and doubt, where the concentration is on the child learning to regulate physical urges. Competence in regulating these functions is centered on toilet training and mastery, results the child increasing some amount of self-reliance. Failure to accomplish competence at this time results in pity as the child's failure will be criticized by caregivers. It will result in the kid being doubtful about their skills (Baron, 1998). The third stage is initiative versus guilt where the child begins to display effort as they develop new physical and mental skills. That is evidenced by the planning and execution of strategies. This initiative must be balanced by the necessity to respect the privileges of others (Sigelman & Rider, 2009).
The fourth stage is industry versus inferiority where in fact the child acquires more skills and competencies. Mastery of interpersonal and educational skills is emphasized to be important as they are the primary measures of comparability with peers. Failure to attain mastery will lead to thoughts of inferiority (Sigelman & Rider, 2009), while success will bring about thoughts of competency and affirmation in one's expertise. The fifth level is personal information versus role dilemma. This is considered a crucial stage as it occurs during adolescences when young adults are struggling to comprehend "who they are" and other important life questions, to determine what is important to them and understanding their unique attributes (Baron, 1998).
The successful quality of the fifth level really helps to "pave the way for the intimacy versus isolation stage where as adults, persons develop the capability to form committed long-term connections" (Sigelman & Rider, 2009, p. 37). Failing to form relationship brings about emotional or public isolation. The seventh stage is generativity versus stagnation, this calls for adults experiencing a sense of accomplishment from engaging in activities they feel will cause them departing a legacy. These activities include rearing children and making a worthwhile contribution through work or community undertakings (Sigelman & Rider, 2009). The final stage is integrity versus despair where individuals grapple with whether their lives had meaning. If they feel it acquired meaning, they have a sense of integrity of course, if not they will have a feeling of despair (Baron, 1998).
Erikson theory emphasizes the effects of biological and social affects. Aspects of almost all of the levels resonate beside me when I think about my development. I remember being in preschool, where I witnessed another child's inability to keep control over his physical urges and the humiliation and shame that he faced as a result. During the occurrence, I recall sensing a sense of pride it wasn't me. Mastery of level two (bathroom training), was important for feeling normal, based on the anticipations of my mom and the wider population.
I can also relate with Erikson's fourth level of industry versus inferiority when i experienced a feeling of fulfillment when my educational skills were verified in my mind when I successfully obtained a cross in the normal Entrance Assessment for a traditional high school. The stresses and competition from the process and my success made me feel self-confident in my skills. The sense of achievement originated from the checking myself to my peers and societal requirements. I experienced some of the challenges associated with Erikson's fifth stage. My challenges included conflicts between the values learned at home, the influences of peers and other societal affects. The task was, which to check out and the explanation for doing so. The struggle included developing a sense of home that was strong enough to go against what was popular and dealing with the problems of feeling like an outcast consequently of my options. It had been also about defining by domain flipping was as a person as I did so not necessarily accept all of my family's prices.
For Erikson's sixth stage, I am uncertain what characterized balance for this stage, if it's actually forming a well balanced intimate relationship or perhaps getting the potential or capacity to create these interactions. My experience has been that we now have a whole lot of societal pressures to actually take an intimate marriage specifically for females in the centre to later a long time of this level. I remember battling to feel normal because I decided to go with not to form a romance until I came across what I needed in a partner.
Specifically, I battled against the belief that something was wrong if I was of a certain time and not in a dedicated relationship. While I really believe the experience of having a marriage is character improving in some regards, I do not think too little this means that ones personality or development is retarded. This is true if the person can form and keep maintaining other styles of friendship which, albeit different, shows a capacity to provide of one do it yourself to others.
I have just entered the generativity versus stagnation level which may describe my attempts to improve my profession to one which I imagine maybe become more fulfilling based on the satisfaction to be gained from helping others. I however, have doubts concerning whether a few of these processes, such as a desire to help others, can be fixed to a arranged time span. This stage emphasizes caring for others and wanting to give back predicated on reflectivity on one's life in my opinion, but how do you explain younger people who have dedicated themselves to this type of goal either by beginning to have a family group early or committing them themselves assisting others.
I find the theory to be very relatable, for the reason that it emphasizes sociable discord and personal dilemmas that I can identify with, such as trying to find myself as an adolescent and trying to decide where I wanted to go with my entire life. The idea also appears to encompass the cognitive, culture and natural areas of us as individuals; it appears to indicate that we are not decided only by factors outside of our control such as instinct. The theory depicts folks as growing and developing over living and is contrary to main stream psychoanalytical/psychosexual ideas, which target mainly on early youth development and posits our personality is set before we reach adulthood.
The psychosocial theory demonstrates persons undergo changes throughout their life cycle, with specific changes occurring at distinct intervals. I however, question the predictability of the series, the precise changes and their incident as individuals development can vary predicated on their experiences and culture. In my view, the idea is heavily reflective of american culture, based on their timelines and criteria. It also brings into question character versus nurture, as I really believe Erikson may have ignored what I respect as innate traits that people are born get back will result in several personalities despite contact with the same caregivers and environment.
The question that still remains in my own mind is what goes on easily have unresolved issues from my adolescences stage. Specifically, if one will not achieve balance, because I am still unsure of what I wish to do with my entire life and where I want to go. In a few regards, does that make one less of well developed, productive adult? Also, can phases be initiated prior to or after the age ranges identified especially for the adult stages.
Overall, the idea is the one which presents a framework of personality and development, where individuals are seen as considering, logical beings who are impacted by their interrelationships and environment. While I might have questions about some aspects, I appreciate that no single theory covers all the complexities of individuals development and that the ideas are also affected by the life and activities of the theorist.
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